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274 terms

Unit 9 Test APUSH

STUDY
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Black Thursday:
On October 23, a wave of panic selling gripped investors who dumped $4 billion in stock, by noon on this day the stock market had lost another $9 billion
Black Tuesday:
October 29, 1929; called "the most devastating day in the history of the New York Stock Market, on which investors sold more than 16.4 million shares- a record that would stand until 1968; by the end of this day the market had lost $32 billion
Scottsboro Boys:
in 1931 authorities arrested 9 black teenagers and charged them with raping two white women on a train bound for Scottsboro; twelve days after their arrest, an all- white jury sentenced them to the electric chair; the Supreme Court overturned the conviction the following year, only to have it upheld by another court, which was then again reversed by the Supreme Court; in 1935 four of the boys had the charges dropped, while the other five served long prison terms
Dust Bowl:
a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with farming methods that did not include crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops, soil terracing and wind-breaking trees to prevent wind erosion.Extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains in the preceding decade had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds
The Grapes of Wrath:
novel by John Steinbeck chronicling a family's migration to California during the Dust Bowl
Reconstruction Finance Corporation:
One of Hoover's boldest moves to stabilize the internal economy; lent money to financial institutions; by July it had pump $1.2 billion into the economy; later given permission to lend money directly to state and local governments; faced intense criticism for its favoritism toward certain bank
Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932):
United States federal law passed under President Herbert Hoover in order to lower the cost of home ownership. It established the Federal Home Loan Bank Board to charter and supervise federal savings and loan institutions. It also created the Federal Home Loan Banks which lend to S&Ls in order to finance home mortgages.
Glass-Steagall Act:
added $1 billion in gold to the money supply in 1932; passed by Congress in 1933 prohibiting commercial banks from collaborating with full-service brokerage firms or participating in investment banking activities. enacted during the Great Depression. It protected bank depositors from the additional risks associated with security transactions.
Hoovervilles:
name given to tarpaper and cardboard shacks that housed the nation's homeless during the Great Depression
Bonus Army:
made up of veterans of WWI who descended on Washington to lobby for immediae payment of bonuses due them (in 1945) for their service; when Senate rejected the bill, most of them left but about 8, 000 promised to squat there until their demands were met
Battle of Anacostia Flats:
when a scuffle between some veterans and police in from the White House led to gunfire, President Hoover called the army to maintain order; Chief of Staff Douglass MacArthur decided instead to forcibly remove the protesters; MacArthur charged into the Flats with tanks and a column of infantry, tossing tear gas canisters into tents and plunging with bayonets drawn into crowds of men, women, and children; marked the low point of the Hoover presidency
Franklin Delano Roosevelt:
began his political career in 1910 as a New York Senator; as a governor he applied ideas that would mark his early presidency- repeal of Prohibition, unemployment insurance, use of public works to create jobs, etc.; presidential candidate for the 1932 election
Eleanor Roosevelt:
emerged as the most powerful voice for combating discrimination in New Deal programs and elsewhere; she visited black colleges and churches and invited black leaders into the White House; helped the NAACP to raise money and added her name to fundraising ventures by other black groups; central figure in the increase in women's political influence
"Brain Trust":
began as a term for a group of close advisors to a political candidate or incumbent, prized for their expertise in particular fields. The term is most associated with the group of advisors to Franklin Roosevelt during his presidential administration
First 100 Days:
It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.The term was coined by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
"Bank Holiday":
shutting down of banks declared by FDR until he could push a recovery bill through Congress
Emergency Banking Act (chart):
provided expanded federal credit for banks and authorized the reopening of banks under strict new guidelines
"Fireside Chats":
radio broadcasts that FDR used to reassure the nation that the economy was on its way to correction and tell people that keeping money in the reopened banks was safer than keeping it "under the mattress"; by the end of March nearly $1 billion had flowed back into the system
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (chart):
created to insure individual bank deposits up to $2, 500
Beer-Wine Revenue Act:
signaled the end to Prohibition; levied a federal tax on all alcoholic beverages to raise revenue for the federal government and gives individual states the option to further regulate the sale and distribution of beer and wine
Civilian Conservation Corps (chart):
provided jobs for more than 2 million men in army- style camps in national parks and forests; for $30 a month they planted trees, cleared campsites, built bridges, constructed dams, and blazed fire trails
Public Works Administration (chart):
created to undertake an ambitious public construction program; its impact was limited by the penny- pinching ways of its head, Interior Secretary Harold Ickes
Harold Ikes:
Interior Secretary of FDR who greatly hindered the potential of the Public Works Administration
Frances Perkins:
was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to theU.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull thelabor movement into the New Deal coalition.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (chart):
coalition headed by Harry Hopkins to allocate $500 million to state and local governments to dispense to needy families; half the money went to the states on a matching basis of one federal dollar for every three state dollars; Hopkins had the discretion to distribute the remaining $250 million on basis of "need"
Harry Hopkins:
Head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration; distributed over $5 million during his first two hours in office
Civil Works Administration (chart):
temporary program that coupled relief with work; headed by Harry Hopkins; workers refurbished roads and schools, and also worked with the arts and entertainment
Agricultural Adjustment Act (chart):
provided farmers with subsidies for letting acreage lie fallow or shifting it to nonsurplus crops; corn producers, for example, received 30 cents a bushel for corn not raised; created a commodity loan program to keep crops that had already been harvested from reaching the market
Butler v. U.S.:
Ruling that declared the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional
National Industrial Recovery Act (chart):
comprehensive program for industrial recovery enacted by Congress a month after passing the AAA
National Recovery Administration (chart):
"the most important and far reaching legislation ever passed by American Congress; under its supervision competing businesses within a given industry met with union leaders and consumer groups to draft codes of fair competition that limited production and stabilized prices; guaranteed workers' right to join unions and engage in collective bargaining; also established minimum wage and maximum hours for workers; was cut down in May of 1935
Schechter v. U.S.:
Supreme Court case that ruled the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional
Tennessee Valley Authority (chart):
one of the greatest achievements of the New Deal; spent billions in federal money constructing dams for flood control and the generation of hydroelectric power for Tennessee; provided power for farms and allowed the development of industry in that region, as well as providing thousands of jobs for poor residents; some criticized it as "socialism," but it was immensely popular among people of Tennessee
Rural Electrification Administration:
improved the quality of rural life more than any other New Deal measure; provided electricity to 90 percent of rural Americans by 1950 (fewer than 10% in 1935)
Home Owners Loan Corporation:
provided loans of up to $14, 00 to 5% interest; by the end of Roosevelt's first term s had made more than a million loans totaling $3 billion
Father Charles Coughlin:
a radio priest; developed a following of millions with his weekly radio program from the Shrine of the Little Flower; blamed the depression on wealthy bankers and rallied his large radio audience in support of Roosevelt's New Deal until 1934, when he turned against the president, denouncing him as a liar and a tool of the moneyed elite; referred to the New Deal, which was once called "Christ's Deal," as a "Pagan Deal"
Dr. Francis E. Townsend:
proposed that people over sixty recieve $200 per month on the condition that they spend the money during the same month that they got it; the money for the pensions would be raised by a "transition tax" - a sales tax levied every time goods were sold; claimed his plan would both provide for the elderly and end the depression by pumping billions of dollars of purchasing power into the economy; when a bill modeled after his plan was introduced into Congress, he secured 20 million signatures calling for its passage
Huey Long:
Louisiana governor who proposed a program of imposing heavy taxes on big business to pay for public works; immensely popular among Louisiana's workers and farmers, and used this as a foundation for an extremely powerful political machine which dominated the legislature and restricted the press
"Share Our Wealth":
plan proposed by Huey Long that promised to "soak the rich and make "every man a king"; proposed using the government's tax power to confiscate all incomes over $1 million and all estates over $5 million, with the money raised going to all farmers and industrial workers, furnishing each family with $5, 000 for buying a farm or home, an annual income of $2, 00, a free college education for their children, a radio, and other benefits; this plan had a special appeal to poor people as well as the middle class that now felt threatened by the many changes around them and now lashed out at the groups- Jews, bankers, communists, and Washington- which they considered responsible for the depression
Upton Sinclair:
California socialist muckraker; captured the 1934 Democratic Party gubernatorial nomination, campaigning on a program he called the End Poverty in California (EPIC); although he lost to a conservative Republican, he attracted over 8 thousand votes
Floyd Olson:
Minnesota governor who stated "I hope the present system of government goes right down to hell"
2nd New Deal:
New agenda proposed by FDR that expanded his focus on social justice; found expression in a number of landmark legislations that would profoundly alter the relationship between the American people and the government: the National Labor Relations Act, the Social Security Act, and the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
National Labor Relations Act (chart):
legislated the right of workers to unionize and to bargain collectively, reaffirming the guarantee inn section 7(a) of the Nationiol Recovery Administration; called "Labor's Magna Carta"; created the National Labor Relations Board; in the long term, this made the government the arbitrator between labor and management
National Labor Relations Board:
created to supervise union elections and to issue "cease and desist" orders against companies that committed unfair labor practices
Social Security Act (chart):
features three forms of aid: pensions for people over 65, unemployment compensation for people temporarily out of work, and "categorical assistance" for specific groups that could not qualify for WPA work or find other forms of unemployment, such as the blind, dependant children, and the disabled; a major step forward in assistance to the "forgotten man"
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act:
asked for the largest peacetime appropriation to date in American history- $4 billion in new funds to be used for work relief and public works construction; in explaining the bill, Roosevelt drew a sharp distinction between "relief" and "work relief," stating that doling out cash was not useful, but that doling out work nurtured self- respect
Work Progress Administration (chart):
became the nation's biggest employer during the Great Depression, hiring more than 3 million people in its first year; created jobs for 8.5 million people in its first year; built thousands of miles of roads, bridges, parks, and public buildings; created the La Guardia Airport, restored the riverfront of St. Louis, excavated Indian burial grounds, and operated the bankrupt city of Key West, Florida
Alfred M. Landon:
campaigned in the 1936 election as a moderate Republicna , expressing support for New Deal goals, but claiming that he could achieve the same results and with less bureaucracy
John Maynard Keynes:
in the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money he proposed that government spend its way out of the depression; argued that governments needed to abandon their faith in balanced budgets and pump money into the economy
Priming the Pump:
solution to poor economic state that argued that the government should step in to increase spending, either by increasing the money supply or by actually buying things on the market itself
Roosevelt Recession:
refers to a period from mid-1937 to 1938 when the economic recovery from the Great Depression temporarily stalled, lasting about 13 months
John Steinbeck:
wrote Grapes of Wrath which tells the story of an uprooted Dust Bowl family, the Joads, making their way along Route 66 to California
Margaret Mitchell:
author of Gone With the Wind a panoramic love story which paints a nostalgic picture of southern culture and white paternalism during the Civil War and Reconstruction which remained on the bestseller lists for 21 consecutive months
Jacob Lawrence:
drew directly on his own experience growing up in Harlem in series of sixty paintings entitle The Migration of the Negro
Edward Hopper:
member of the so- called Fourteenth Street School New York who tried to capture the vitality of urban life on his canvases
Fourteenth Street School of New York:
painters such as Reginald Marsh and Edward Hopper were members of this group; they tried to capture the vitality of urban life on their canvases
Marion Post Wolcott:
photojournalist who recorded the plight of migrant farm workers for the Farm Security Administration in a number of memorable images
Dorothea Lange:
photojournalist who recorded the plight of migrant farm workers for the Farm Security Administration in a number of memorable images
Joe Louis:
African American heavyweight boxing champ who pounded German Max Schmelling in New York's Madison Square Garden
Jesse Owens:
the "Ebony Antelope"; won four gold medals in the 1936 Olympics game
Satchel Paige:
African American Hall of Famer baseball player on the all- black Homestead Grays team
Josh Gibson:
African American Hall of Famer baseball player who played on the all- black Pittsburgh Crawfords team
W.C. Fields:
an American comedian, actor, juggler and writer who was popular during the Great Depression
Will Rogers:
an American cowboy, vaudeville performer, humorist, social commentator and motion picture actor. He was one of the world's best-known celebrities in the 1920s and 1930s
Marx Brothers:
a family comedy act, originally from New York City, that enjoyed success in vaudeville, on Broadway, and in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949
Walt Disney:
emerged as one of the most successful directors of the 1930s; his Three Little Pigs reminded many people of Roosevelt's assertion that Americans had nothing to fear but fear itself
Frank Capra:
emerged as one of the most successful directors of the 1930s; his films, including Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, reaffirmed faith in the individual initiative and suggested that old- fashioned values of kindness, loyalty, and charity could solve most of the nation's ills
The Shadow:
soap opera about crime fighting in which Lamont Cranston reassured audiences that "Crime does not pay"
Mae West:
actress who defied traditional values during the Great Depression; her liberated spirit and appetite for pleasure defied sexual mores
Hindenburg:
passenger blimp that exploded at it attempted to dock in Lakehurst, New Jersey
John L. Lewis:
member of the AFL that led the demand that the union commit itself to the "industrial organization of mass production workers"; when his proposal was rejected, he signified his break from the AFL by punching "Big Bill" Hutchinson in the nose; signaled the beginning of the industrial- union rebellion within the House of Labor and made himself the leading rebel
"Big Bill" Hutcheson:
Head of the AFL who was punched in the face by John L. Lewis
"Sit-Down" Strikes:
novel tactic in which workers would refuse to work but stayed in the factory to prevent nonunion workers from keeping plants going
"Black Cabinet":
team of advisors for FDR whose job was to advise him on issues important to African- Americans
William Hastie:
first black judge appointed to the federal bench
Marian Anderson:
renowned African American opera singer who sang on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday to an audience of thousands, including Eleanor Roosevelt, senators, congressman, and Supreme Court justices
John Collier:
appointed by FDR to reform the Bureau of Indian Affairs; his greatest accomplishment was securing congressional passage of the Indian Reorganization Act; many of his new institutions promoted gender equality by giving women the right to vote in tribal elections and hold office; he also made sure that the BIA offered native women training both in agriculture and animal husbandry and in nursing and secretarial work
Indian Reorganization Act:
restored lands to tribal ownership and protected Native American religious practices and traditional culture; provided for Indian self- government on reservations, new loans for economic development, and expanded medical and educational services
Indian New Deal:
reversed the emphasis on Native American assimilation that had been codified into law by the Dawes General Allotment Act
Frances Perkins:
secretary of labor elected by FDR; first woman cabinet member in US history
Grace Abbott:
a veteran of the Hull House that joined a handful of women reformers to write the welfare provisions of the Social Security Act
Molly Dewson:
closest political ally of Eleanor Roosevelt; served as director of the Women's Division of the national Democratic Party; under her leadership women became an important part of the Democratic Party machinary
Jeannette Rankin:
The lone Congresswoman to oppose the appeal for war after Pearl Harbor
Japanese invasion of Manchuria:
in 1937 Tokyo seized Manchuria, established a puppet government, and dispatched colonists to settle the land; Manchuria served as a defensive buffer from Russia
USS Panay:
American gunboat sunk by Japanese warplanes in the midst of a full scale military attack against china; FDR accepted Japan's subsequent apology
Benito Mussolini:
leader of Italy during most of WWII; dreamed of creating an Italian empire in North Africa; launched an invasion of the independent state of Ethiopia and gained control of the lightly armed country within a year
Fascist Party:
an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism; the party ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943
Invasion of Ethiopia (1935):
Benito Mussolini's invasion of this independent African state in order to start an Italian empire there; successful within a year
Rome Berlin Axis:
Coalition formed in 1936 between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries was reached on October 25, 1936.
Adolf Hitler:
bullied his way to power as Germany's Chancelor; tapped into deep well of resentment that Germany felt toward the West for imposing a punitive peace after WWI
Fuhrer:
German name meaning "leader" adopted by Adolf Hitler when he came to power
Nationalist Socialist Party (Nazis):
political party of Hitler; the only legal political party in Germany during WWII
Berlin Olympics (1936):
The 'racially inferior' Owens won four gold medals; in the 100m, 200m, long jump and 4 x 100m relay. During the Games he broke 11 Olympic records and defeated Lutz Lang in a very close long jump final. Lang was the first to congratulate Owens when the long jump final was over. There were 10 African American members of the American athletics team. Between them they won 7 gold medals, 3 silvers and 3 bronze - more than any national team won in track and field at the Games, except America itself. Hitler refused to place the gold medal around Owen's neck.
Francisco Franco:
led an armed revolt against Spain's democratically elected government; Germany and Italy fortified Franco's cause with military aid
Spanish Civil War (1936):
Republicans, who were loyal to the established Spanish republic, and the Nationalists, a rebel group led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists prevailed and Franco would rule Spain for the next 36 years.
Abraham Lincoln Battalion:
American volunteers, many of them communists, who went to Spain to fight for the republican cause during the 1936 Civil War
Cordell Hull:
Former Tennessee judge who believed world trade was the key to international understanding; FDR's secretary of state; under him the president developed the Export Import Bank and the Reciprocal Trade Act
Recognition of the Soviet Union:
November 1933, FDR recognized this government hoping to encourage them to pay their war debts and limit their propaganda to the US; this government also had potential to be a major trading partner- a serious consideration during an economic depression
"Good Neighbor" Policy:
New method of diplomacy with Latin America adopted by FDR
Abrogation of the Platt Amendment:
FDR revoked this policy in order to underscore the beginning of the "good neighbor policy"
Withdrawal of troops from Haiti:
FDR removed the American marines stationed on this island in 1934
Road to War Walter Millis:
argued that America mobilized in 1917 not to preserve democracy, but to protect Wall Street bankers
Nye Committee:
concluded that the bankers who had lent Allies money and the "merchants of death" who had sold them ammunition were the cause of American involvement in WWI
Neutrality Acts of 1933, 1935, 1937, 1939:
imposed an automatic embargo on American arms and ammunition to all parties at war; added a ban on loans to belligerents; banned American ships from war zones and prohibited Americans from traveling on belligerent ships; extended the embargo to include supplies needed for machines
Anschluss with Austria:
union imposed on Austria by Adolf Hitler
Neville Chamberlain:
British Prime minister who met with Hitler in Munich in order to address his takeover of Sudenteland
Winston Churchill:
future prime minister who met with Hitler in Munich in order to address his takeover of Sudetenland; sacrificed Sudetenland in order to avoid war and appease Hitler
Sudetenland and Munich Conference:
a mountainous region bordering Germany and inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans; this conference handed this land over to Germany
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939):
Agreement between Stalin and Hitler to not attack one another; Stalin, knowing that Hitler would come toward the USSR after Poland, made this agreement in order to buy time rebuild his forces
Blitzkrieg/invasion of Poland (1939):
German offensive tactic; Hitler unleashed this tactic on Poland on September 1, 1939; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days after this
Phony War:
belief of most Americans that WWII was a hoax; due to calm that settled over Europe from 1939- 1940
Cash and Carry:
provision of the American Neutrality Acts that lifted the arms embargo against belligerents with the stipulation that the belligerent ships pay for all arms in cash and transport them on their own ships
Invasion of Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, France:
series of Blitzkrieg invasions that occurred on April 9th that shattered the false confidence that Hitler could be contained
Rhineland:
made into a demilitarised zone under the terms of Versailles; Germany had political control of this area, but she was not allowed to put any troops into it; In March 1936, Hitler took what for him was a huge gamble - he ordered that his troops should openly re-enter the area, thus breaking the terms of Versailles once again. He did order his generals that the military should retreat if the French showed the slightest hint of making a military stand against him. This did not occur.
Vichy Government:
puppet government installed in France after their surrender to the Nazis
Battle of Britain:
One of the European arena's for WWII; began after the surrender of France; during this Hitler ordered the terror bombing of London- Britain's refusal to break eventually deterred Hitler
Destroyer for bases deal:
president FDR offered Britain fifty WWI vintage destroyers in exchange for leases to 8 British military bases
Resumption of the draft:
In 1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Selective Training and Service Act, creating the country's first peacetime draft and officially establishing the Selective Service System
1940 Election:
Presidential election that placed Wendell Willkie against FDR as he ran for an unprecedented 3rd term; dominated by questions of war and peace as WWII raged in Europe
Wendell Willkie:
Republican candidate in the 1940 election; initially supported Roosevelt's defence policies and focused his attacks on the perceived failures; he then shifted gears and condemned Roosevelt's tactics, promising peace for Americans
Lend Lease Agreement:
agreement unveiled by FDR that would allow the United States to provide Britain with valuable war materials by "lending them"
America First Committee:
group formed to oppose the passage of the Lend-Lease proposal; formed by isolationists who denied that Hitler posed a threat to American security
Charles Lindbergh
American aviator, made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20-21, 1927; a member of the America First Committee
Atlantic Charter:
most famous product of the summit held at Placentia Bay between FDR and Winston Churchill; the two leaders pledged to honor self-determination, free trade, nonagression, and freedom of the seas; Under Churchill's urging, FDR promised to wage war, but not declare it
Tripartite Pact:
between Germany, Japan, and Italy; pledged its signatories to come to one another's help in event of an attack; aimed to dissuade the US from either joining with Britain or directly opposing Japan's violent expansionism in the Pacific
Hideki Tojo:
militant war minister in Japan who opposed compromise with US and gained control of Japan's imperial government in October; decided that he would continue diplomatic efforts to relax the embargo for three more weeks. If no agreement was reached, Japan would go to war; he set the date for attack on December 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor:
attack launched on American naval base on December 7, 1941; the next day America entered WWII
"Big Three":
The three major powers of the Allies, represented by Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and Franklin Roosevelt
Henry Stimson:
Secretary of war for FDR who stated that business should be allowed to make money when the US entered WWII
War Powers Act (1941):
gave the President enormous authority to execute World War II in an efficient manner. The president was authorized to reorganize the executive branch, independent government agencies, and government corporations for the war cause. The President was allowed to censor mail and other forms of communication between the United States and foreign countries. All changes created by its power were to remain intact until six months after the end of the war at which time, the act would become defunct.
War Production Board:
created by FDR to develop policies governing all aspects of production and to exercise general responsibilities over the nation's economy; the head, Donald Nelson, took a limited view of his powers and allowed "little czars" to retain considerable autonomy in dealing with petroleum, rubber, and labor and he permitted both the army and navy to maintain seperate purchasing authority; most importantly, Nelson tried to gain business confidence by offering financial incentive
Office of Price administration and Civilian Supply:
established a system of rationing civilian purchases of tires, cars, gasoline, sugar, and later shoes, oil, and coffee; also imposed a cap on most prices and rents; "Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without" became the slogan of this organization
National War Labor Board:
created to regulate wage increases as well as prices; adopted a formula that permitted wage increases in line with the 15 percent rise in cost of living since January
Smith-Connolly Bill:
also known as the War Labor Disputes Act; empowered the president to seize any vital plant shut down by strikes; FDR struck this down, not wanting to alienate labor unions, however Congress accumulated the necessary votes to override the veto and enact the legislation
Revenue Act of 1942 and 1943:
created the modern federal income tax system; starting inn 1942 anyone earning $600 or more annually had to file a return; and income tax withholding from paychecks went into effect in 1943
GIs:
men recruited for WWII by the draft; named to the Government Issue stamps on their gear
Operation TORCH:
a joint Anglo- American invasion of North Africa, where the British has been tied down in a struggle with Italian and German forces; launched on November 8, 1942 with US force under Dwight Eisenhower and British troops under Bernard Montgomery
Dwight D. Eisenhower:
Leader of the US troops that stormed ashore at points along the coasts of the French North African colonies of Morocco and French North Africa (Operation TORCH)
Bernard Montgomery:
leader of the British Eighth Army that pushed eastward into Africa from Egypt (Operation TORCH)
Erwin Rommel:
one of Hitler's best generals; known as the "desert fox"; trapped by the British and American forces in Operation TORCH
Battle of Stalingrad:
German attempt at an invasion of Russia; Stalin's army surrounded a large German force and after four months of intense fighting, the Germans, having lost 300,000 men, surrendered
Casablanca Conference:
meeting between Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in a Moroccan city in Northern Africa to discuss the next step in the European war after the surrender at Stalingrad; Despite American pushes for the creation of a second front in order to help Stalin and strike at the heart of German forces, Churchill held sway, calling for a continuation of the Mediterranean campaign with an invasion of Sicily
George Patton:
General who sliced through weak Italian defenses and entered the city of Palermo on July 22
Tehran Conference:
meeting between FDR, Churchill, and Stalin in late Nov. 1943 as momentum shifted toward the Allies; Roosevelt and Stalin finally achieved agreement for opening of a second front; Stalin also demanded a buffer zone, Soviet control over Eastern Europe, to protect against another invasion. Roosevelt reassured Stalin that the US would not interfere, but that he could not publicly take part in any such arrangement
Operation Overlord:
the greatest amphibious assault in recorded history, employing over five thousand ships and eleven thousand airplanes; "D- Day" which opened up the long awaited second front from the French coast at Normandy; by nightfall the Allies controlled the five target beaches
Battle of the Bulge:
The one final assault of the German forces in WWII; German tanks crashed through weakly fortified Allied troops in Belgium. Before American's blunted this force 29, 000 Americans were dead, wounded, or missing; after this battle the German machine was in complete and final retreat
Omar Bradley:
Allied general who toured the concentration camp in Ohrdruf after Allied occupation
Kristallnacht:
orgy of arson and murder of Jews that occurred on November 1938 after a Jewish man killed a German official; named for the pools of broken glass that littered German streets; a few days after this Jews began being shipped to concentration camps
Holocaust:
beginning in 1941 German soldiers packed much of the Jewish population of eastern Europe and the Soviet Union into railroad freight cars and dumped them in death camps such as Buchenwald and Dachau; another three million people- Poles, Russians, Slavs, gypsies, criminals, homosexuals, and resistance fighters- suffered the same fate
St. Louis:
In 1939 the US government refused entry of 930 desperate Jewish refugees onboard this ship, forcing the captain to return to Europe, where many of the refugees again suffered Nazi reprisals
Breckinridge Long:
the State Department official responsible for refugee issues who blocked efforts to save Jews and later suppressed information about the death camps during WWII
Thomas Dewey:
Republican presidential candidate in the 1944 election; accepted the broad outlines of Roosevelt's domestic and foreign policy and supported social security, unemployment insurance, relief for the poor, and collective bargaining; attacked the bureaucratic inefficiency of the New Deal
Harry S. Truman:
Vice- presidential candidate for FDR in the 1944 election ; had won national attention in the Senate as the head of a committee investigating corruption and graft in the defense program; hailing from a border state, he was acceptable to party conservatives; also held close ties to big city machines
Yalta Conference:
meeting held by the Big Three to discuss the occupation of Germany, the creation of a UN, and the status of Eastern Europe; Stalin promised to proclaim war on Japan within a few months of Germany's surrender and in return FDR accepted Soviet claims to the Kurile islands in the Far East; Stalin dropped his demands for $20 billion in German reparations, agreeing to discuss it later; all three leaders approved plans for a United Nations Conference in San Francisco in April 1945; to avoid conflict over the post-war status of Poland, Stalin agreed to "free and unfettered elections" in Poland, but at an unspecified time
Eva Braun:
The mistress of Hitler who fulfilled a suicide pact with him
V-E Day May 7, 1945:
The new German government (after Hitler's suicide) signed an unconditional surrender in Allied headquarters, ending WWII in the European arena
Office of War Information:
created by an executive order in 1942, headed by Elmer Davis, and staffed by advertising executives; sold WWII to the public; its most effective tool was the war poster
Edward R. Murrow:
American broadcast journalist. He first came to prominence with a series of radio news broadcasts during World War II, which were followed by millions of listeners in the United States and Canada.
Howard K Smith:
an American journalist, radio reporter, television anchorman, political commentator, and film actor. He was one of the original Edward R. Murrow boys.
Irving Berlin:
Wrote "White Christmas" which was the most played recording composed during WWII
Captain Midnight:
comic book hero who tracked down Nazi spies and asked children to recite a pledge "to save my country from the dire peril it faces or perish in the attempt"
Executive Order 9066:
authorized the forced evacuation of Japanese residents on the West Coast; required more than one hundred thousand people, many of them American citizens, to dispose of their property and move to government "relocation centers" scattered throughout the West
Japanese Internment Camps:
relocation centers created for Japanese US residents throughout the US
Hirabayashi v. United States:
was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that the application of curfews against members of a minority group were constitutional when the nation was at war with the country from which that group originated.
Korematsu v. United States:
ruling that Executive Order 9066 was constitutional. The opinion, written by Supreme Court justice Hugo Black, held that the need to protect against espionage outweighed Fred Korematsu's individual rights, and the rights of Americans of Japanese descent. During the case, Solicitor General Charles Fahy is alleged to have suppressed evidence by keeping from the Court a report from the Office of Naval Intelligence indicating that there was no evidence that Japanese Americans were acting as spies or sending signals to enemy submarines
442nd Regimental Combat Team:
considered to be the most decorated infantry regiment in the history of the United States Army.; regimental size fighting unit composed almost entirely of American soldiers of Japanese descent who volunteered to fight in World War II even though their families were subject to internment.
Rosie the Riveter:
became the media symbol of woman at work during WWII; she could do a man's work without compromising her femininity and Life magazine hailed her as "the heroine of a new order"
W.E.B. Dubois:
African American who defined WWII as a struggle for democracy not only for whites, but for all minority groups within the US
Double V Campaign:
fought for victory against the dictators overseas and V for victory in the African American struggle for fair treatment at home
A. Philip Randolph:
head of the Brotherhood for Sleeping Car Porters who proposed a massive march on Washington to protest discrimination and segregation; unable to convince him to cancel the march, FDR agreed to his demands in Executive Order 8802
Executive Order 8802:
declared that there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin; established a President's Fair Employment Practices Committee which, though underfunded and understaffed, conducted a number of highly visible hearings that focused public attention on discrimination in government agencies
Congress of Racial Equality:
founded by a group of pacifists in Chicago; orchestrated sit- in demonstrations and picketing campaigns to desegregate public facilities
Braceros:
Mexican contract laborers imported by the federal government during WWII in order to meet the need because of the shortage of farm labor
Zoot Suits/Zoot Suit Riot:
Mexican gang members called pachucos because of their distinctive clothing; in the summer of 1943, following a rumor that a gang of Mexican youths had assaulted a sailor, thousands of servicemen took to the streets, assaulting any youth wearing the gang's clothing
Navajo Codebreakers:
They were a small band of warriors who created an unbreakable code from the ancient language of their people; took part in every assault the U.S. Marines conducted in the Pacific from 1942 to 1945; confounded the enemy by talking in a seemingly unbreakable code.
Bataan Death March:
forced pilgrimage of hundreds of American and Filipino prisoners for 65 miles in the broiling heat to concentration camps without food or water
Battle of the Coral Sea:
the first naval battle fought exclusively by carrier- based aircraft; Americans blunted the Japanese attack on Australia's north coast
Battle of Midway:
battle between Japanese forces and the American Navy, which was still battered from Pearl Harbor; despite the odds being favor of the Japanese, the American forces were able to sink all four Japanese aircraft carriers, destroying the heart of the enemy's mighty task force
Gen. Douglas MacArthur:
General who was ordered by FDR to abandon the Philippines before the Japanese attacked; after the Battle of Leyte Gulf, he led the US troops in the retaking of the Philippines
Adm. Chester Nimitz:
commander of the Pacific fleet in the Battle of Midway that was able to use information from American code breakers in order to surprise the Japanese
Island hopping:
military tactic of American marines and army infantry in the South Pacific during WWII; used to inch closer to the Japanese mainland
Battle of Leyte Gulf:
largest naval engagement in world history; the increasingly desperate Japanese used kamikazes, which did not inflict enough loses to prevent a crushing Japanese defeat that secured US naval control of the Pacific; after this, Gen. MacArthur led the US in retaking the Philippines
Kamikazes:
pilots trained to crash- dive their planes onto enemy aircraft carrier decks; used for the first time in the Battle of Leyte Gulf
Iwo Jima:
tiny island that cost 4, 189 American lives to finally capture in Feb, 1945; foretold the heavy resistance that Japan would put u
Okinawa:
Japanese island that was capture two months after Iwo Jima; Japanese resistance foretold that the invasion of their home islands would be a long, bloody campaign
J. Robert Oppenheimer:
Scientist who led a team in the creation of the atom bomb
Manhattan Project:
secret, top- priority program meant to create a nuclear weapon that would give the Allies victory
Los Alamos:
laboratory created in order to undertake the Manhattan Project; the first atomic device was exploded here
Enola Gay:
the atomic weapon dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945
Hiroshima:
first city ever to be assaulted by an atomic bomb; the world's first atomic bomb struck with the force of 12 thousand tons of TNT and killed about 100, 000 people instantly and thousands more died later
Nagasaki:
the site of the second atomic bomb drop in WWII; dropped two days after Russia entered the war, killing 40, 000 people and obliterating much of the city
United Nations:
made represent a mix of balance- of- power and collective security arrangement; the charter gave every nation membership in a weak General Assembly, but only the five victorious allies from WWII, the US, the USSR, Britain, France, and China, retained permanent seats on the powerful twelve- member Security Council; the US Senate approved the charter by a lopsided vote of 89- 2
Joseph Stalin:
seized control of the Soviet Union following Lenin's death in 1924; consolidated his power through a series of bloody purges that killed nearly 3 million citizens; he iniatiated a massive effort to collectivize agriculture that led to the death of 14 million peasants; in 1934, after signing a nonaggression pact with Hitler, he sent troops into Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Mission to Moscow:
in this book Joseph E. Davies proclaimed that the Russia Lenin and Trotsky- the Russia of the Bolshevik Revolution- no longer exists
"Sphere of Influence":
buffer area that Stalin demanded at the end of WWII in order to defend Russia's borders from any more attacks
Harry Truman:
assumed the presidency in 1945 after FDR's death; lacked FDR's talent for ambiguity and compromise; saw the Yalta Accords as contracts and committed to seeing that Stalin honored the agreements; matched Stalin's inflexibility with calls for self- determination and free elections in Eastern Europe
Vyacheslav Molotov:
Soviet foreign minister that Harry Truman scolded for Soviet aggression in Poland
Potsdam Conference:
final meeting of the Grand Alliance; the leaders reached tentative agreements over sensitive issues: Russia would permit Anglo- American observers in E. Europe to monitor free elections and would withdraw its troops from oil- rich Azerbaijan in Iran; in return the West reluctantly accepted Soviet occupation of E. Germany and approved Russian annexation of eastern Poland; on the key issue of reparations, the leaders agreed that each power would extract reparations from its own zone in occupied Germany, and that the Western powers would transfer 15% of the capital equipment in their zones to Russia in return for food, coal, and other raw materials
Yalta:
divided Germany into four zones and Berlin into four sections (USSR, British, US, and French)
James Byrnes:
(1946) Secretary of State under Harry Truman who stated that the US would no longer seek agreement with the Soviets on the future of Germany
Atomic Energy Commission:
established by the Big Three foreign ministers to deal with the question of nuclear weapons in postwar world order; the international appeal for this failed because the US and USSR failed to reach an agreement over its terms; in the US, controlled research and development of nuclear energy; created by Congress in 1946
Winston Churchill:
former prime minister of Britain that declared the presence of an Iron Curtain in Europe
"Iron Curtain" speech:
speaking in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill declared of Europe that an "iron curtain had descended across the Continent"; to counter the threat, he called for the association of English- speaking peoples to remain vigilant at all times
George Marshall:
Harry Truman's replacement for James Byrnes as secretary of state; had earned a reputation as a distinguished military officer and skilled manager; presided over the process that transformed America's approach to the world
Dean Acheson:
one of the chief advisors of Sec. of State George Marshall; rejected suggestions that morality should drive American policy and instead stressed that American power was essential to peace; urged Truman to employ the full range of American power- economic, military, diplomatic- to tame the Soviet bear
Baruch Plan:
provided for international control and inspection of nuclear production facilities, but clearly announced that the United States would maintain its nuclear weapons monopoly until every aspect of the proposal was in effect and working. The Soviets, not surprisingly, rejected this plan. The United States thereupon rejected a Soviet counter proposal for a ban on all nuclear weapons; failure of the plan to gain acceptance resulted in a dangerous nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
George Kennan:
Moscow diplomat and State Department official whom Sec. of State George Marshall turned to for advice
Containment:
American foreign policy during the Cold War that sought to ensure that communism did not spread beyond Russia
Crisis in Iran, Greece, and Turkey:
announcement in 1947 that the British could no longer afford to support Greece and Turkey; in order to fill the power vacuum,Harry Truman convinced Congress to appropriate $400 million for Greek and Turkish military and economic aid
Truman Doctrine:
policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech[1] on March 12, 1947 stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere; stated that "the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
Marshall Plan:
was the American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again. Truman submitted the plan to Congress with the recommendation that the US spend $17 million over 4 years
Foreign Assistance Act:
reorganized the structure of existing U.S. foreign assistance programs, separated military from non-military aid, and created a new agency, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to administer those non-military, economic assistance programs
Communist Information Bureau:
tightened Stalin's control in the Eastern bloc and within Russia; also called upon communists in the underdeveloped world to accelerate "their struggle" to liberation; seen by the US as a declaration of political and economic war against the US
Joint Chiefs of Staff:
included generals of the three services and and the marines; formed by the National Security Act
National Security Act:
created the skeleton of the national security apparatus; expanded executive power by centralizing previously dispersed responsibilities in the White House; established the Department of Defence to oversee branches of the armed services and formed the Joints Chiefs of Staff; also created the National Security council, a cabinet level body to coordinate military and foreign policy for the president
National Security Council:
a cabinet level body to coordinate military and foreign policy for the president; led by the president, it included the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the secretaries of state and defense, the VP, and any other members the president chose to appoint
Central Intelligence Agency:
carried out the espionage operations directly under the autority of the National Security Council
Trizonia:
union of the French, British, and US zones of Germany; contained Germany's richest industrial resources and a population of 50 million
Berlin Airlift:
response to a Soviet blockade; American and British planes dropped 2.5 million tons of provisions to sustain the ten thousand troops and 2 million civilians in west Berlin; Truman threatened to use "the bomb" if Stalin's forces shot down the planes
Brussels Treaty (1948):
signed by Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg; provided for collective self-defense
North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
a mutual defence pact that bound twelve signatories (the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.) to fight against aggression; Article 5 provided that "an armed attack against one or more... shall be considered an attack against them all"
Dwight E. Eisenhower:
appointed by Truman to serve as NATO supreme commander
Rio Treaty:
US and Latin American signatories agreed that "any armed attack by any state against and American state shall be considered an attack against all the American states"
Organization of American States:
founded on 30 April 1948, and has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., United States. Its members are the 35 independent states of the Americas.
Warsaw Pact:
alliance of the East European socialist states as the nominal counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on the European continent
Recognition of Israel:
Truman's recognition of the new Jewish state that declared its independence from Palestine in 1948; fighting over this region still continues between Iranians and the Jewish people
Walter Lippmann:
charged that containment would increase executive power as the expense of other branches of government and divert energy and resources away from domestic needs; argued that it would militarize American foreign policy and force it to support corrupt dictators (right, and right)
Removal of [war] price controls:
first week after this prices for goods increased 16%; steaks increased from 55 cents to one dollar a pound; staples all showed huge increases overnight
Chester Bowles:
Office of Price Administration chief; wanted Truman to limit inflation after WWII by continuing wartime price controls
John L. Lewis:
led 4 hundred coal miners out of the pits; for forty days this strike cut off the nation's fuel and threatened European recovery
Election of 1946:
midterm election that displayed Truman's plummeting popularity and held many Republican successes
Death of Roosevelt:
cerebral hemorrhage brought FDR's life to a tragic end and elevated Truman to the presidency
22nd Amendment:
constitutional amendment that limited the presidency to two terms; passed by Congress for fear of continued Democratic dominance of the White House
Taft-Hartley Act:
outlawed the closed shop, which required that all hiring be down through a union hall; permitted stated to pass so called right-to-work laws allowing non-union member to work in unionized plants; empowered authorities to issue federal injunctions against strikes that jeopardized public health or safety; gave the president power to stave off strikes by imposing "cooling off" periods up to 80 days; also required union leaders to swear they were not communists
Henry Wallace:
former vice president that Progressives looked to for leadership; in 1946 Truman fired him from his position as secretary of agriculture after he criticized the administration's growing hard line with the Soviets; two month later he announced that he would run for president on a third party Progressive ticket in the 1948 election
Thomas Dewey:
Republican presidential candidate for the 1948 election; confident of his victory, he ignored Truman and avoided specific issues; concentrated on convincing voters that he was an efficient administrator who could bring unity to the country and effectiveness to its foreign policy
President's Committee on Civil Rights:
first presidential committee ever created to investigate race relations in America; released its report, To Secure These Rights, which called for an end to segregation and discrimination and advocated legislation to abolish lynching and the poll tax
Executive Order 9981:
set up procedures for ending racial discrimination in the military; the order symbolized Truman's commitment to civil rights
Smith v. Allwright:
struck down the white-only Democratic Primary
Dixiecrat:
southern delegates who stormed out of the Democratic convention and formed their own party, electing Gov. J. Strom Thurmond for the presidency; the party declared segregation of the races and racial integrity of each race as their platform
J. Strom Thurmond:
Presidential candidate for the Dixiecrat party; avoided direct racial appeals and instead focused on states' rights, by stating that the civil rights program and the federal power that it required "had its origin in communist ideology"
1948 Election:
Pitted Democratic Harry Truman, Dixiecrat J. Strom Thurmond, Republican Thomas Dewey, and Progressive Henry Wallace against each other for the presidency; Truman scored the most dramatic upset victory in the history of presidential elections
Fair Deal:
the term given to an ambitious set of proposals put forward by United States President Harry S. Truman to the United States Congress in his January 1949 State of the Union address. The term, however, has also been used to describe the domestic reform agenda of the Truman Administration, which governed the United States from 1945 to 1953; Congress showed little desire to support Truman's calls for new programs that moved beyond the New Deal; rejected the president's proposals- largely a victim of the Cold War
Vital Center:
book written by Arthur Schlesinger which referred to the new liberalism as a middle way between the tyranny of the left and right; three basic assumptions informed this: "the gospel of economic growth," internationalism, and prosperity
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-schek):
Leader of the Nationalist southern China; his corrupt and incompetent government initially received support from Truman, but after repeated refusals to reform, was abandoned to collapse
Mao Zedong:
Communist leader of northern China; won control of China with the collapse of the Nationalist government in the South
Chinese Nationalists and Formosa or Taiwan:
party of Southern China led by Jiang Jiehshi; when the US refused to continue supporting it, Jiang's forces collapsed and scrambled to an offshore island where they formed an independent government
People's Republic of China:
independent government set up in Taiwan (Formosa)
by the Chinese Nationalist after they fled China
China Lobby:
an influential group that advocated US intervention in China; wondered aloud why the Truman administration had stopped supplying weapons to Jiang after the Marshal mission of 1946
Douglas MacArthur:
transformed the vanquished Japan into a model Western democracy in which women could vote, trade unions were encouraged, and the land was redistributed among the peasants
National Security Council Memorandum 68 (NSC-68):
presented a frightening portrait of a Soviet system that sought to impose absolute authority over the whole world; called for an extraordinary increase in the defense budget from $13 billion to $50 billion a year
Hydrogen Bomb:
nuclear weapon with the potential to be a thousand times more powerful than the atomic weapons that had destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the US exploded the first on in 1952, obliterating an uninhibited is in the Pacific, the following year Russias exploded their first, then Britain and France soon followed- signaling a new phase of the arms race
Kim Il Sung:
Communist leader installed by Russia to rule northern Korea
Syngman Rhee:
a conservative nationalist who emerged as the American sponsored ruler of southern Korea
38th Parallel:
at the end of WWII the United States and the Soviets had temporarily divided the Korean peninsula at this place
Inchon:
daring amphibious attack by General MacArthur behind enemy lines near the port city of Pusan; this dual attack (a simultaneous attack was occurring in Pusan) was able to force Southern Korean back behind the 38th parallel
Yalu River:
the boundary between Korea and the Chinese province of Manchuria
Removal of MacArthur:
removal of General MacArthur in response to his public slandering of President Truman's war strategies; enraged the American people, who gave MacArthur a hero's welcome in San Francisco
Demilitarized Zone:
is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula that serves as a buffer zone between North and South Korea which runs along the 38th parallel north.
"Police Action":
a military action undertaken without a formal declaration of war. US used United Nations approval in Korea
Amerasia:
allegedly procommunist newspaper in which numerous classified government documents were found
Executive Order 9835:
established the Federal Employee Loyalty Program; allowed dismissal of any federal employee whenever reasonable grounds to believe that he or she is disloyal exists
Dennis v. U.S.:
unheld the declaration that the Smith Act was constitutional and also upheld the conviction of 11 top communists; cleared the way for the conviction of other communist leaders in the US
Whittaker Chambers:
an editor at Time magazine who accused Alger Hiss of having been a communist; claimed that Hiss had given him a microfilm of classified State Department documents
Alger Hiss:
had served as a high-ranking aide to Franklin R. at Yalta; accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a communist; since the statute of limitations had expired for espionage, he was convicted for perjury and sentenced to 5 years in jail; his conviction convinced many Americans that the Truman and Roosevelt administrations had been oblivious to the danger of communist espionage
Richard Nixon:
California Congressman who was among the most aggressive investigators of subversion during the Cold War; described the Alger Hiss case as "the most treasonable case in American History"
"Pumpkin Papers":
microfilm produced by Whittaker Chambers that contained supposedly secret documents
Klaus Fuchs:
an atomic physicist who had worked at Los Alamos atomic energy laboratory; arrested by the British government for alleged espionage
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg:
arrested by the FBI for supposedly conspiring with Klaus Fuchs to pass secrets to the Russias; denied their charges, stating that they were the victims of anticommunist hysteria and anti-semitism; the husband and wife were convicted and later executed, despite evidence of their innocence and pleas for their release
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC):
opened a series of investigations into the Hollywood entertainment industry; in Sept. it subpoenaed 41 witnesses
"Hollywood Ten":
a small group of screenwriters who served prison terms for refusing to answer questions about their ties to the Communist party
Internal Security Act of 1950:
required communists and communist- front organizations to register with the government and identify as communists all of their official mail and literature; the most severe provision authorized the government to place all communists in concentration camps whenever a national emergency should occur; Truman's veto of this law was overridden by Congress
Joseph McCarthy:
the most feared demagogue of his time; became the most visible public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion. He was noted for making claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government and elsewhere. Ultimately, his tactics and inability to substantiate his claims led him to be censured by the United States Senate.
Army-McCarthy Hearings:
public hearings used by Democrats in order to ruin the credibility of Joseph McCartney; helped transform McCarthy into a towering national figure