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69 terms

Ch. 17-20

What was Seward's folly?
The purchase of Alaska from Russia for 7 million dollars (btw, that's SUPER cheap compared to the amount of revenue the U.S. has gained from the oil found there)
What were the Alabama Claims?
The Alabama was a ship (blockade runner) that was constructed by Britain for the Confederacy. William Seward, the secretary of state, demanded an indemnity payment from the British (we're sorry... payment). However, before the payment of $15million dollars was finalized, Seward was replaced by Hamilton Fish
What was the age of capital?
A time period right after the Civil War where federal funds were used for internal improvement.
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
The Union Pacific and Central Pacific railways could get a huge tract of land from Nebraska to California that was given to them by the government. This was the checkerboard pattern thingy Mr. G drew on the board to demonstrate how it worked. The railroads would sell the land given to them to finance the building of the railroads while the government kept every other piece of land for themselves.
Why could the Burlingame Treaty of 1868 be considered an act of discrimination towards the Chinese?
The Chinese were allowed to immigrate to the US, but the treaty didn't guarantee naturalization (becoming a citizen). One of the main reasons this act was passed was to get the Chinese to come and work on the railroads.
Why was the Exclusion Act of 1882 racist?
A: It banned Chinese immigration into the US for the next 10 years. The Chinese could also be deported.
Q: Where did the "wedding of the rails" take place?
A: Promontory, Utah
Q: What was the "Morganization" of the railroads and why was it called this?
A: Many of the railroads that received federal funding started to go bankrupt and J.P. Morgan (big man with big money) bought out most of the railroads.
Q: What was the significance of Big Jim Hill's Great Northern Railroad?
A: It was the only railroad that didn't receive any government funding so it was one of the few that wasn't bought out by Morgan.
Q: Why could John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil company be considered a monopoly?
A: It was so powerful that it controlled almost 90% of the nation's oil.
Q: What was the Boss Tweed & Tammany Hall scandal about?
A: This was Democratic corruption at city level - Tweed was the "boss" of the Democratic Party and he and his buddies stole 10's of millions of dollars from the city treasury. Samuel Tilden was the prosecutor of the scandal.
Q: What was Thomas Nast's importance?
A: Nast further publicized the whole ordeal by drawing caricatures and cartoons of the Tweed Ring. Boss Tweed was so desperate he offered Nast $500,000 to stop making the cartoons.
Q: What was the Gold Corner scandal?
A: This was Republican corruption at national level. For more information, look on page 8 in your chapter 17 SMO. Keep in mind that Jay Gould and Jim Fisks' plan WORKED.
Q: During the panic of 1873, what was the conflict over government charity?
A: The government saw the depression as a "natural yet painful" part of the business cycle and it allowed only the strongest enterprises and workers to survive. It had sort of an "economic Darwinism"-esque essence.
Q: What was so weird about the election of 1876?
A: This explanation might be a tad long... The race between Hayes and Tilden (PROSECUTER OF BOSS TWEED!) was extremely close. Neither candidate had 185 electoral votes which were required to win the presidency. There were 20 disputed votes in Florida, LA, South Carolina, and Oregon. The issue was resolved by the establishment of a bipartisan Electoral Commission that was composed of 7 democrats, 7 republicans, and ONE independent. HOWEVER, the independent member dropped out of the commission and was replaced by a Republican. Think...what did this mean for Tilden, the Democrat? Now that the majority was Republican, and that each member voted along their party lines, Hayes won the presidency by one vote in the commission. All disputed electoral votes went to him.
Q: Who coined the term "Gilded Age" and what did it describe?
A: Mark Twain. The term described a period in time (1865-1901) where when you looked at the surface, the US seemed to be shining bright with riches and luxuries and very wealthy people , but those images only covered the majority of the population: the common man.
Need some help fully understanding what it was? Here's the definition for gilded: to cover something with a thin layer of gold
Q: What was the concentration approach towards Indians actually trying to do?
A: It wasn't trying to resolve tribal conflicts, it was actually trying to deal with each tribe one at a time (make it easier for the government).
Q: What was the Dawes Severalty Act?
A: Individual Native Americans could receive land from the government if he had broken the bond between him and his tribe.
Q: What were the negative impacts of the above act?
A: Native Americans had a hard time adjusting to white society - faced discrimination and the hardships they went through with their tribe but now they were alone.
Q: What was Philip Sheridan's view towards buffalo herds?
A: He thought that they should all be killed because that would have kept the Native Americans on their reservations. One of the reasons the Native Americans moved from their reservation was because they followed the buffalo herds to hunt.
Q: What was significant of the Sand Creek Massacre?
A: Colonel Chivington and his Colorado Volunteers attacked PEACEFUL Cheyenne Indians even though Chief Black Kettle had held up a US flag and a truce banner. It showed that America was growing even more intolerant towards the Indian population.
Q: What was the Bozeman Trail?
A: A trail with one day walks to forts that were stretched along the trail.
Q: What was the Fetterman Massacre?
A: Fetterman saw Crazy Horse and chased him into a trap of Sioux Indians. They killed all of Fetterman's 80 soldiers and disemboweled them.
Q: What was important about the Treaty of Fort Laramie?
A: It allowed the Sioux to occupy the Black Hills - their sacred land "as long as the grass shall grow"
Q: What was the significance of the Battle of Little Big Horn?
A: In Indian culture and mindset, if you won a big battle, it means you've won the war.
Q: What was the Ghost Dance?
A: It turned into a powerful movement on reservations that was used to get rid of the white man. It was a dance given to the Indians after Wovoka (prophet) had a vision from the Creator that led him to believe the land they had lost would be regained.
Q: What led to the Battle of Wounded Knee?
A: The Ghost Dance influenced it but the census officially saying that there is no more frontier also caused a sense of desperation to make more room for the country in any way America can.
Q: Who created "Jumpin' Jim Crow"?
A: Daddy Rice
What was the exodus of 1879 and who were the "exodusters"?
AfricanAmerican people who retreated to Kansas, California (basically the Upper West) to escape Jim Crow laws.
Q: What did T. Thomas Fortune want?
A: Vocational education and opportunities for black people so that they could raise the status of their jobs and therefore raise themselves in the status of society. He created the Afro-American League in 1877.
Q: Who was Booker T. Washington's counterpart and what did he believe in?
A: W.E.B. Dubois thought that blacks should tolerate the discrimination and segregation, and that they should take not ask (like Booker T. Washington though) for their equality. He believed in finding the "Talented Tenth" of the population. If a small portion of blacks could be very successful, then the rest of the population would be associated with them.
Q: Who was more effective: Washington or Dubois?
A: Washington's strategy obtained the most success.
Q: What was placer mining?
A: It was panning for gold: people would bring pans and sift through the dirt in river beds.
Q: What was lode mining?
A: This type actually went to the source of the gold and it required super expensive machinery to extract it.
Q: What was the Caminetti Act?
A: It allowed states to regulate the mines.
Q: What was the long drive?
A: The movement of cattle 15,000 miles north to grazing ranches and stockyards where they could then be shipped to Eastern markets.
Q: Who was Nat Love?
A: He was a famous African American cowboy
Q: What was the strategy in open range ranching?
A: People bought all the little sections of land around a river and wouldn't let other people who bought land by them use the water. The strategy kept people from buying any more land around the river so that the cattle rancher could let his cattle graze wherever they wanted.
Q: Why was Joseph Glidden important?
A: He created barbed wire! :D
Q: Explain grain elevators: oh jeez...
A: Companies or individuals would build HUGE grain storage that were like huge silos and let farmers store their wheat in there until the price of wheat went up and then the farmers could take out their wheat and put it on the market at the new, higher price. It allowed farmers to
grow as much as they wanted because they didn't have to store it.
Q: Define consumer goods:
A: the goods/stuff that individuals buy (ironing boards, washing machines, stuff like that)
Q: Define capital goods:
A: the goods/stuff that companies buy to make the consumer goods (machines and the like)
Q: What did Alexander Graham Bell invent/patent?
A: the telephone, yay for him
Q: Who was Thomas Edison?
A: invented a lamp that burned for 13 hours. Father of electricity. He also invented the kinetoscope which was something like an early movie projector.
Q: What did George Westinghouse contribute?
A: The air brake: allowed long trains that were safe and the automatic coupler: connected trains
Q: What were rebates and drawbacks?
A: Rebates were saying thank you to a favored customer while drawbacks were saying I'm sorry to favored customers for doing business with their competitors.
Q: What were the two types of coal?
A: Anthracite: the consumer goods (heated homes) and Bituminous: capital good (steel furnaces, railroad fuel).
Q: What is vertical growth?
A: When a firm/company gained control of production at every step: raw materials, transportation, producing the final product, everything
Examples of Vertical Growth?
A1: Andrew Carnegie - produced steel and the steel rails
A2: UFC (United Fruit Company) owned the farms in S. America, all transportation, and stores.
A3: Gustavas Swift & Meat - owned refrigeration cars, land, cattle, slaughterhouses, and meat markets "from corral to can"
Q: What was horizontal growth?
A: When a firm/company gained control of the market for a single product
Example of Horizontal Growth
A: Rockefeller and Standard Oil Trust
How did Rockefeller do it?
A: Trust - any business that tries to restrain trade in order to destroy competition and therefore establishing a monopoly in that one are
Q: What was the Money Trust?
A: Consisted of J.P. Morgan and Rockefeller. Pujo Committee! They horizontally expanded the money supply and were more involved in national finances than the government.
Q: What did the Pujo Committee find out about Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan?
A: Together they had $22 billion in all. Could be found in business, business investments, secret holdings of stock, etc. Together the two businessmen could buy half of the country. Scary...
Q: What does the Sherman Anti-Trust Act do?
A: Kind of self explanatory ^ but it basically outlaws trusts but the courts interpreted it as outlawing trade unions.
Q: What court case undermined the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
A: US vs. E.C. Knight because they couldn't prove restraint of trade.
Q: What was the Erie War?
A: Jay Gould, Jim, Fisk & Daniel Drew all owned the most valuable stretch of railroad - the Erie Railroad. Cornelius Vanderbilt wanted it for himself but they wouldn't sell it to him so he started to secretly buy stock in order to obtain a majority (own the railroad). The three owners found out and started to print extra stock: they'd keep one for themselves and send out one to the market. This kept the ownership in the initial owners' hands and when Vanderbilt realized, both sides hired thugs with guns to fight it out but it didn't work. Then they both hired politicians to pass and block legislation but that didn't work either. Eventually the four guys met and Gould, Fisk & Drew bought back Vanderbilt's stock and then sold it to the public at a higher price. Gould, Fisk & Drew basically won.
Q: How did the Haymarket Riot affect unions?
A: Unions (including the Knights of Labor) lost credibility because they became associated with radicals and violence. The 10 hour day was reinstituted and companies would no longer negotiate with unions. It led to the AFL (American Federation of Labor)
Q: What did the AF of L focus on?
A: wages, working conditions, and working hours.
Q: What was the New South?
A: Basically the south saying "Let's copy the north and industrialize! Weee!" However, the South remained agriculturally oriented because they were too dependent on northern finance and continued to rely on cotton.
Q: What was the New South?
A: Basically the south saying "Let's copy the north and industrialize! Weee!" However, the South remained agriculturally oriented because they were too dependent on northern finance and continued to rely on cotton.
Q: Who was Henry Grady?
A: He was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution who believed that there should be cheap and plentiful labor, expansive fields of cotton, textile mills should be operated efficiently and profitably and that there should be no restriction by unions.
Q: What were southern attempts at trying to compete with the North?
A: Railroads - 22,000 miles of new track laid
A: Iron and steel - south got help from foreign investors and started running factories
A: Cotton industry - increase the amount of mills, heavily invest in machines, fully equip themselves with electricity
Q: Who was Louis Sullivan?
A: Built the first skyscrapers! Woahhhh.
Q: Who led the "city beautiful" movement?
A: Frederick Law Olmsted
Q: Where and why did the "new immigrants" come to America?
A: Mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe. Most came to escape poverty, work hard, and build a new home/life, OR work hard, earn and save money and then return back home
Q: What did new immigrants coming to America incite?
A: Mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe. Most came to escape poverty, work hard, and build a new home/life, OR work hard, earn and save money and then return back home
Q: Who created the idea of conspicuous consumption and what was it?
A: Thorstein Veblen. It was a highly visible display of wealth and consumption that was created by the rich.
Front Porch Campaign?
Hanna and McKinley