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how does the hypothalamus-pituitary axis work?

releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate pituitary to release trophic hormones which stimulate peripheral glands to produce and release their hormones.

tertiary hormone disorder

abnormality in the hypothalamus

secondary hormone disorder

abnormality in the pituitary

primary hormone disorder

abnormality in the actual endocrine gland

what is the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary gland?

anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones (hormones that stimulate other organs to secrete hormones) while posterior secretes hormones that don't need to stimulate another organ (ie: oxytocin and ADH).

what stimulates release of GH

hypoglycemia, fasting, starvation, stress

what inhibits release of GH

hyperglycemia, free fatty acids, obesity, cortisol

long term effect of increased GH levels

increased blood glucose


growth hormone releasing hormone - secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate GH release by the pituitary

agenesis of the pituitary

underdeveloped pituitary

idiopathic GH deficiency

lacks GHRH

Laron-type dwarfism

defect in IGF - the hormone that carries out the growth actions of GH


Insulin like growth factor

growth hormone excess

Children - gigantism; adults - acromegaly

gonadal hormones

GnRH - from Hypothalamus, stimulates release of FSH & LH from pituitary; FSH & LH stimulate gonads to produce gametes and release gonadal hormones


Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone - from hypothalamus, acts on anterior pituitary

what stimulates release of Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)

sleep, stress, and cold - maintain body temperature by increasing metabolism


Thyroid stimulating hormone - from anterior pituitary, acts on thyroid

Hashimoto thyroiditis

autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the thyroid

clinical features of hypothroidism

muscle weaknes, coarse brittle hair, loss of lateral eyebrows, lethargy impaired memory, madness, periorbital edema (puffy face), pallor, large tongue, hoarsness, cardiomegaly, gastric atrophy, constipation, menorrhagia, peripheral edema


hyperthyroidism - clinical syndrome that results from high levels of thyroid hormone

Symptoms of Graves disease

symptoms: muscle wasting, fine hair, exophthalmos, goiter, sweating, tachycardia, weight loss, oligomenorrhea, tremor


enlarged thyroid

Graves Disease

caused by autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid - antibodies attatch to TSH receptors (TSI - Thyroid stimulating immunoglobins)

infrequet menstruaion 4-9/yr


2 hypothyroidisms

hashimotos thyroiditis and thyroidectomy

2 hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis

graves disease and thyroid tumors

major adrenal cortical hormones are

cortisol, testosterone and aldosterone

maj. adrenal cortical hormones,steroids from

acetate and cholesterol

ACTH controls secretion of

glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens

what is used in the production of glucose?

amino acids mobilized from body proteins are transported to the liver and used to produce glucose

mineral corticoids with RAA controle

body levels of sodium and potassium.

mineral corticoids are from

the adrenal cortex

Glucocorticoids have

anti-inflammatory action

glucocorticoids aid in regulating

glucose, protein and fat metabolism during periods of stress.

addisons disease

destruction of the adrenal gland

acute adrenal insufficiency is a

life-threatening situation

actions of cortisol

catabolism increased, immune inflammatory systems supressed, SNS up, blood glucose up, free faty acids up, muscle breakdown, plasma proteins increased

think cortisol think


cushing syndrome refers to

manisfestations of excessive cortisol levels

cushing syndrome can be from

pharmacologic doses of cortisol, pit. or adreanal tumor or ectopic tumor that produces ACTH

addisons disease too much

ACTH due to lack of feed back

in addisons all

3 layers of adrenal cortex destroyed

untreated cushing yndrome produces

serious moridity an deven death

adrenal hyperplasia congenital

decreased cortisol synthesis other hormones may be increased or decreased

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