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how does the hypothalamus-pituitary axis work?
releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate pituitary to release trophic hormones which stimulate peripheral glands to produce and release their hormones.
what is the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary gland?
anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones (hormones that stimulate other organs to secrete hormones) while posterior secretes hormones that don't need to stimulate another organ (ie: oxytocin and ADH).
growth hormone releasing hormone - secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate GH release by the pituitary
GnRH - from Hypothalamus, stimulates release of FSH & LH from pituitary; FSH & LH stimulate gonads to produce gametes and release gonadal hormones
what stimulates release of Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
sleep, stress, and cold - maintain body temperature by increasing metabolism
clinical features of hypothroidism
muscle weaknes, coarse brittle hair, loss of lateral eyebrows, lethargy impaired memory, madness, periorbital edema (puffy face), pallor, large tongue, hoarsness, cardiomegaly, gastric atrophy, constipation, menorrhagia, peripheral edema
Symptoms of Graves disease
symptoms: muscle wasting, fine hair, exophthalmos, goiter, sweating, tachycardia, weight loss, oligomenorrhea, tremor
caused by autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid - antibodies attatch to TSH receptors (TSI - Thyroid stimulating immunoglobins)
what is used in the production of glucose?
amino acids mobilized from body proteins are transported to the liver and used to produce glucose
actions of cortisol
catabolism increased, immune inflammatory systems supressed, SNS up, blood glucose up, free faty acids up, muscle breakdown, plasma proteins increased
cushing syndrome can be from
pharmacologic doses of cortisol, pit. or adreanal tumor or ectopic tumor that produces ACTH
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