how does the hypothalamus-pituitary axis work?
releasing hormones from hypothalamus stimulate pituitary to release trophic hormones which stimulate peripheral glands to produce and release their hormones.
tertiary hormone disorder
abnormality in the hypothalamus
secondary hormone disorder
abnormality in the pituitary
primary hormone disorder
abnormality in the actual endocrine gland
what is the difference between the anterior and posterior pituitary gland?
anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones (hormones that stimulate other organs to secrete hormones) while posterior secretes hormones that don't need to stimulate another organ (ie: oxytocin and ADH).
what stimulates release of GH
hypoglycemia, fasting, starvation, stress
what inhibits release of GH
hyperglycemia, free fatty acids, obesity, cortisol
long term effect of increased GH levels
increased blood glucose
growth hormone releasing hormone - secreted by the hypothalamus to stimulate GH release by the pituitary
agenesis of the pituitary
idiopathic GH deficiency
defect in IGF - the hormone that carries out the growth actions of GH
Insulin like growth factor
growth hormone excess
Children - gigantism; adults - acromegaly
GnRH - from Hypothalamus, stimulates release of FSH & LH from pituitary; FSH & LH stimulate gonads to produce gametes and release gonadal hormones
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone - from hypothalamus, acts on anterior pituitary
what stimulates release of Thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
sleep, stress, and cold - maintain body temperature by increasing metabolism
Thyroid stimulating hormone - from anterior pituitary, acts on thyroid
autoimmune disorder in which the immune system destroys the thyroid
clinical features of hypothroidism
muscle weaknes, coarse brittle hair, loss of lateral eyebrows, lethargy impaired memory, madness, periorbital edema (puffy face), pallor, large tongue, hoarsness, cardiomegaly, gastric atrophy, constipation, menorrhagia, peripheral edema
hyperthyroidism - clinical syndrome that results from high levels of thyroid hormone
Symptoms of Graves disease
symptoms: muscle wasting, fine hair, exophthalmos, goiter, sweating, tachycardia, weight loss, oligomenorrhea, tremor
caused by autoimmune disorder that stimulates the thyroid - antibodies attatch to TSH receptors (TSI - Thyroid stimulating immunoglobins)
infrequet menstruaion 4-9/yr
hashimotos thyroiditis and thyroidectomy
2 hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis
graves disease and thyroid tumors
major adrenal cortical hormones are
cortisol, testosterone and aldosterone
maj. adrenal cortical hormones,steroids from
acetate and cholesterol
ACTH controls secretion of
glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens
what is used in the production of glucose?
amino acids mobilized from body proteins are transported to the liver and used to produce glucose
mineral corticoids with RAA controle
body levels of sodium and potassium.
mineral corticoids are from
the adrenal cortex
glucocorticoids aid in regulating
glucose, protein and fat metabolism during periods of stress.
destruction of the adrenal gland
acute adrenal insufficiency is a
actions of cortisol
catabolism increased, immune inflammatory systems supressed, SNS up, blood glucose up, free faty acids up, muscle breakdown, plasma proteins increased
think cortisol think
cushing syndrome refers to
manisfestations of excessive cortisol levels
cushing syndrome can be from
pharmacologic doses of cortisol, pit. or adreanal tumor or ectopic tumor that produces ACTH
addisons disease too much
ACTH due to lack of feed back
in addisons all
3 layers of adrenal cortex destroyed
untreated cushing yndrome produces
serious moridity an deven death
adrenal hyperplasia congenital
decreased cortisol synthesis other hormones may be increased or decreased
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