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Chapter 4: Network Access
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Terms in this set (42)
Which two layers of the OSI model are so closely tied, that according to the TCP/IP model they are in essence one layer?
The data link and physical layer
How does a Wired connection work
Data is transmitted through a physical cable
How is data transmitted in a wireless connection?
Data is transmitted using radio waves. To offer wireless capability, devices on a wireless network must be connected to a wireless access point (AP).
What kind of Router offers both a wired and wireless connection?
Integrated Sevice Routers (ISRs)
What NICs are used for a wired connection?
Ethernet NICs (Network Interface Cards)
What NICs are used for a wireless connection?
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) NICs
What does the OSI Physical LAyer provide?
The means to transport the bits that make up a data link layer frame across the network media. This layer accepts a complete frame from the data link layer and encodes it as a series of signals that are transmitted onto the local media. The encoded bits that comprise a frame are
What form do data signals take on a cooper cable (network media)?
The Signals are patterns of electrical pulses.
What form do data signals take on a fibre-optic cable?
patterns of light
What form do data signals take on a wireless network media?
patterns of microwave transmissions
What is Encoding in networking?
Encoding or line encoding is a method of converting a stream of data bits into a predefined "code". Codes are groupings of bits used to provide a predictable pattern that can be recognized by both the sender and the receiver. In the case of networking, encoding is a pattern of voltage or current used to represent bits; the 0's and 1s.
What does Bandwidth mean?
data transfer speed.
The capacity of a medium to carry data
Bandwidth is the capacity of a medium to carry data. The amount of data that can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time
How is bandwidth measured?
Kilobits per second > kb/s
Megabits per second > Mb/s
Gigabits > Gb/s
What is Throughput?
The measure of the transfer of bits across the media over a given period of time.
Throughout = A measure of the transfer of bits across the media.
The measure of the bits transferred across media over a given period of time
The maximum throughput between any two nodes on a network is determined by the slowest link between those nodes.
What are the 3 main types of Copper media used in networking?
UTP > Unshielded Twisted-Pair
STP > Shielded Twisted Pair
What are the 2 types pf Fiber-optic cables?
 Single-mode fiber (SMF): Consists of a very small core and uses expensive laser tech to send a single ray of light. Popular in long-distance situations spanning hundreds of kilometers, such as those required in long haul telephony and cable TV applications.
 Multi-mode Fiber (MMF): Consists of a larger core and uses LED emitters to send light pulses. Light from an LED enters the multimode fiber at different angles. popular in LANs because they can be powered by low cost LEDs. It provides bandwidth up to GB/s over link lengths of up to 550 meters.
What is "Wireless Personal Area Netork (WPAN)"?
What does a Wireless Access point do?
Concentrates the wireless signals from users and connects to the existing copper-based network infrastructure, such as ethernet.
What are the 2 sublayers of the Data-Link Layer?
Logical Link Control (LLC): this upper sublayer communicates with the network layer.
Media Access Control (MAC): this lower sublayer defines the media access processes performed by the hardware. It provides data link layer addressing and across to various network technologies
What is the importance of the Data Link Layer? Clue: Media Access Control (MAC)
Without the data link layer, network protocols such as IP, would have to make provisions for connecting to every type of media that could exist along a delivery path. Moreover, IP would hav to adapt every time a new network technoplogy or medium developed. This process would hamper protocol and network media innovtioon and development. This is a key reason for using a layered apprtoachj to networking
Explain the difference between a physical and logical Topology.
: refers to the physical connections and identifies how end devices and infrastrcuture devices such as routers, switches, and wioreless access points are interconnected. Physical topologies are usually point to point or star.
: refers to the way a network transfers frames from one node to the next. This arrangement consists of virtual connections between the nodes of a network. These logical signal paths are defined by data link layer protocols.
It is the logical topology that influences the type of network framing and media access control used.
Name 3 types of common Physcial WAN Topologies
Point to point, Hub & Spoke, Mesh
- This is the simplest topology that consists of a permanent link between two endpoints. For this reason, this is a very popular WAN topology.
Hub and Spoke
- A WAN version of the star topology in which a central site interconnects branch sites using point-to-point links.
- This topology provides high availability, but requires that every end system be interconnected to every other system. Therefore, the administrative and physical costs can be significant. Each link is essentially a point-to-point link to the other node.*
What OSI & TCP/IP Layers are concerned with network access?
The TCP/IP network access layer is the equivalent of the OSI data link layer (Layer 2) and the physical layer (Layer 1).
What type of cable is used to connect a workstation serial port to a Cisco router console port?
UTP cable wire pairs can be terminated in different configurations for use in different applications. To use a UTP cable for consoling into a Cisco router from a PC serial port, it must be terminated as a rollover or console cable.
What is the purpose of the OSI physical layer?
transmitting bits across the local media
The physical layer is responsible for transmitting the actual signals across the physical media as bits. Exchanging frames, controlling media access, and performing error detection are all functions of the data link layer.
Which is a function of the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer?
to identify which network layer protocol is being used.
Defining the media access processes that are performed by the hardware and providing data link layer addressing are functions of the MAC sublayer. The data link layer accepts Layer 3 packets and packages them into data units that are called frames.
What makes fiber preferable to copper cabling for interconnecting buildings?
1. Greater distances per cable run
2. Limited susceptibility to EMI/RFI
3. Greater bandwidth potential
What is the difference between a straight-through and a crossover cable?
A straight-through cable can have either a T568A or T568B standard termination at one end and the same at the other end.
A crossover cable has a T568A standard termination at one end and a T568B standard at the other end.
A rollover cable can have either a T568A or T568B standard termination at one end, and at the other end have the same standard, but with the wires connected in reverse order.
A fiber-optic cable is not terminated using RJ-45 connectors.
What method is used to manage contention-based access on a wireless network?
Refer to curriculum topic: 4.2.4
Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used with wireless networking technology to mediate media contention.
Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is used with wired Ethernet technology to mediate media contention. Priority ordering and token passing are not used (or not a method) for media access control.
As data travels on the media in a stream of 1s and 0s how does a receiving node identify the beginning and end of a frame?
The transmitting node inserts start and stop bits into the frame.
What is contained in the trailer of a data-link frame?
What is the function of the CRC value that is found in the FCS field of a frame?
To Verify the integrity of the received frame
What acronym is used to reference the data link sublayer that identifies the network layer protocol encapsulated in the frame?
LLC - Logical Link Control
What technique is used with UTP cable to help protect against signal interference from crosstalk?
Twisting the wires together into pairs
Which method of data transfer allows information to be sent and received at the same time?
What are two services performed by the data link layer of the OSI model?
 It Provides media access control and performs error detection
 It accepts layer 3 packets and encapsulates them into frames
Why are two strands of fiber used for a single fiber optic connection?
They allow for full-duplex connectivity
Which type of connector does a network interface card use?
RJ-45 (check answer)
Which layer of the OSI model is responsible for specifying the encapsulation method used for specific types of media?
Data Link Layer
What is "crosstalk"?
The distortion of the transmitted messages from signals carried in adjacent wires
What are two reasons for physical layer protocols to use frame encoding techniques?
 To distinguish data bits from control bits
 To identify where the frame starts and ends
A network administrator is designing the layout of a new wireless network. Which three areas of concern should be accounted for when building a wireless network?
 Coverage Area
The three areas of concern for wireless networks focus on the size of the coverage area, any nearby interference, and providing network security. Extensive cabling is not a concern for wireless networks, as a wireless network will require minimal cabling for providing wireless access to hosts. Mobility options are not a component of the areas of concern for wireless networks.
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