Terms in this set (10)
What does GAS stand for? What does it mean? And who came up with it?
General-same reaponse to all agents
Adaption- beat way for the body to cope with extreme stress
Syndrome-several syndromes in the stress response
Developed my Hans Selye after animal research led to conclusion of a universal response to all stressors.
Stage 1: Alarm reaction
Threat to the stressor is recognised and response made
Involves two simultaneous processes:
1. Immediate short term response of sympathomedullary pathway (SAM). This involes the hypothalamus activating the sympathetic branch of such autonomic nervous system, causing adrenaline and noradrenaline to be released by a he adrenal medulla.
2. Slower long term response called the Hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal system (HPA). The hypothalamus releases corticotropin- releasing hormone into the bloodstream which activates the pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol by releasing the adreno-corticotrophic hormone.
Stage 2: resistance stage
The body appears to be coping with the stressors demands. However, as sugars, hormones and neurotransmitters are depleted, the immune system becomes less effective.
Stage 3: Emergency stage
The body functioning is impaired and the immune system is suppressed. The adrenal glands may be damaged and stress-related illnesses and mental impairments may occur.
Evaluation of the physiology of stress
1. P- There is criticism for the exhaustion/emergency phase of GAS. E- Recent research that the resources such as sugars and proteins, do not become depleted. E- it is thought that instead this phase is associated with increased hormone activity, such as cortisol which can lower the immune response and impair cognitive functioning which can lead to stress related illnesses. L- Therefore seyle was wrong to propose that the depletion of resources leads to stress related illnesses.
2. P- Findings from both human and non-human research studies provide support for GAS. E-For example, research shows that both human and non-human bodies produce the same physiological responses to any stressors. E- This supports Selyes 'doctrine of specifocoty' which says that there is a non specific response of the body to any demand made on it. L- This indicates the thorough understanding of the physiological rssponses to stressors.
3. P- The fight or flight response is not relevant to many common stressors, such as exam revision which doesn't require energetic levels of physical activity. E- The fight or flight response is only adaptive when the stressor requires energetic behaviour. E- repeated activation of the stress response can lead to cardiovascular problmes and imunnosupression. L- This meams our body may be reacting to stressors in a way that prevents other processes from protecting us.
4. P- There are gender differences in the bidys response to stressors. E- Research with female rats, found that they release oxytocin which increases relaxation and reduces fear, therefore inhibiting the fight or flight response. E- Taylor argued that 'tend and befriend' is a more adaptive response for women, and is involved in the conext of them being primary caregivers to their child. L- This suggests the standard description of the SAm and HPA is gender-biased account of the stress response.
Stress and cardiovascular disorders
High levels of adrenaline increase heart rate
Stress in immunosupression
Evaluation the role stress in illness
Williams study of stress and cardiovascular disease
Krcolt-Glaser study of stress and immunosuppression
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