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Ch. 10 pp. 389-404 supplemental info-->Gardner Williams College

Factor Analysis

A statistical technique invented by Charles Spearman that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a smaller number of underlying factors (basically that the group of abilities called "intelligence" should determine whether or not you're good at everything)

Results of factor analysis research

-there is, generally, a positive correlation between performance in two different cognitive fields - frequently but NOT always true

Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence

Spearman's revised theory which stated that every task requires a combination of a general ability and skills specific to that task

What was Thurstone's criticisms/rebuttal to the two-factor theory?

-scores in subcategory more correlated then those outside subcategory
-theorized "clustering of correlations" - therefore no "general intelligence" ability, but instead a few stable and independent abilities - "primary mental abilities"

Confirmatory factor analysis

-showed that correlations between scores on different mental ability test are best described by 3-level hierarchy - general intelligence factor-->group factors (like the primary mental abilities)-->specific factors

List the 8 "middle-level abilities" of intelligence (from data-based approach)

Memory and learning, visual perception, auditory perception, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, processing speed, crystallized intelligence, and fluid intelligence

Crystallized Intelligence

The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience

Fluid Intelligence

The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences

What are the weaknesses of this data-based approach to measuring the middle-abilities?

It doesn't measure for middle-abilities that can't be measured through data-based question - i.e. creativity and imagination

List Robert Sternberg's 3 kinds of intelligence

Analytic Intelligence - the ability to identify and define problems and to find strategies for solving them
Creative Intelligence - the ability to generate solutions that other people to do not
Practical Intelligence - the ability to apply and implement these solutions in everyday settings

What was Sternberg's criticism of standardized testing?

They measured analytic intelligence, but not creative or practical intelligence


People of normal intelligence who have an extraordinary ability


People of low intelligence who have an extraordinary ability

List Howard Gardner's 8 kinds of intelligence

Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligence

What was Gardner's criticism of standard intelligence tests?

Argues that standard intelligence tests only test linguistic, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence and not the last 5

Emotional Intelligence

The ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning - higher means more friends; better judged competent; and better work and romantic relationships

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