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MGMT 3000 Final Exam
Terms in this set (133)
The forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.
Physiological, Safety, Belongingness, Esteem, Self-actualization
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. 5 categories that capture our needs.
Need for Achievement (nAch)
1 of 3 learned needs (McClelland). The want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals. Desire clear feedback, moderate risk tasks.
Need for Affiliation (nAff)
1 of 3 learned needs (McClelland). Seek approval from others, conform to others, avoid conflict. Effective decision makers do not have this.
Need for Power (nPow)
1 of 3 learned needs (McClelland). Desire to control one's environment. Personalized versus socialized power.
Four Drive Theory
Theory that recognizes that both emotions and logical thinking influence human motivation.
Acquire, Bond, Comprehend, Defend
Four innate drives from the Four Drive Theory. (ABCD).
E to P Expectancy (Effort to Performance)
Probability that a specific effort level will result in a specific performance level (Expectancy Theory of Motivation).
P to O Expectancy (Performance to Outcome)
Probability that a specific performance level will result in specific outcomes (Expectancy Theory of Motivation).
Anticipated satisfaction from the outcome (Expectancy Theory of Motivation).
The 'S' in SMARTER goal setting. What, how, where, when, and with whom the task needs to be accomplished.
The 'M' in SMARTER goal setting. How much, how well, and at what cost?
The 'A' in SMARTER goal setting. Challenging, yet accepted.
The first 'R' in SMARTER goal setting. Within employee's control.
The 'T' in SMARTER goal setting. Due date and when assessed.
The 'E' in SMARTER goal setting. Employee commitment, not just compliance.
The second 'R' in SMARTER goal setting. Feedback and recognition on goal process and accomplishment.
1 of 5 features of effective feedback. Connected to goal details.
1 of 5 features of effective feedback. Relates to person's behavior.
1 of 5 features of effective feedback. Links actions to outcomes.
1 of 5 features of effective feedback. Trustworthy source.
1 of 5 features of effective feedback. Appropriate amount of feedback at appropriate times.
Source of feedback. Directly from others (boss, customers, etc).
Source of feedback. Not conveyed directly by people (electronic displays, survey results).
Process by which information is transmitted and understood between people.
Coordinating work activities, organizational learning, better decision making, influencing others, employee well-being
Importance of communication. 5 reasons.
Person in the Communication Process Model that forms and encodes the message. After transmission, they receive and decode feedback.
Person in the Communications Process Model that receives and decodes the message. After transmission, they form and encode feedback.
The psychological, social, and structural barriers that distort and obscure the sender's intended message.
Forms of communication. Includes verbal (uses words, written or spoken) and nonverbal (no words).
How email has altered communication
Preferred channel for work, increases communication volume, alters communication flow, reduces phone and face-to-face, reduces status differences.
Communicates emotions poorly, reduces politeness and respect, inefficient for complexity, information overload
Problems with email communication. 4 things.
Use of facial expressions, voice intonation, physical distance, and even silence. Mostly automatic and unconscious.
The media channel's data-carrying capacity needs to be aligned with the communication activity. When a channel conveys multiple cues, allows timely feedback, customized messages, and complex symbols.
Hierarchy of Media Richness
Communication channels from lean/clear to rich/ambiguous:
- financial statements
- instant messaging
- video conference
Changing another person's beliefs and attitudes. More effective when spoken.
Form of communication that includes these verbal differences: language, intonation, silence. Many nonverbal gestures vary.
Gender Communication Differences
Men view conversations more as power, status, and functionality. Women consider more interpersonal relations.
Part of the Active Listening Process. Postpone evaluation, avoid interruptions, and maintain interest.
Part of the Active Listening Process. Empathize and organize information.
Part of the Active Listening Process. Show interest and clarify the message.
Transmits information rapidly in all directions. Follows cluster chain pattern and transmits some degree of truth. Have expanded globally due to internet/social networks.
The capacity of a person, team or organization to influence others. The potential to change attitudes and behavior.
Type of power. Agreement that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others.
Zone of Indifference
Range of behaviors for which orders are acceptable without conscious questioning of their authority.
Norm of Reciprocity
Felt obligation to help someone who has helped you.
Right to distribute information to others. Creates dependence and frames situations.
Type of power. The capacity to influence others by possessing knowledge or skills that they value.
Type of power. Control rewards valued by others, remove negative sanctions.
Type of power. The ability to apply punishment.
Type of power. The capacity to influence others through identification with and respect for the power holder. Associated with charisma.
Contingency of power. The availability of alternatives. More power when few/no alternatives.
Contingency of power. Degree and nature of interdependence with power holder. Higher when your actions affect many people quickly.
Contingency of power. Known as holder of valued resource.
Contingency of power. The freedom to exercise judgement. Limited by rules.
People connected to each other through forms of interdependence.
Close-knit relationships. Offer resources more quickly/plentifully but less unique.
Acquaintances. Offer unique resources not held by us or people in other networks.
Resources increase with number. Limited capacity to form weak/strong ties.
Social Network Centrality
Person's importance in a network.
Factor of social network centrality. The extent you are located between others in the network.
Factor of social network centrality. Number of people connected to you.
Factor of social network centrality. Stronger relationships.
Any behavior that attempts to alter another person's attitudes or behaviors.
Type of influence. Power holder's request or mere presence influences behavior. Legitimate power base.
Type of influence. Reminding, confronting, checking, threatening. Legitimate/coercive power.
Type of influence. Withholding, filtering, restructuring information. Legitimate power base.
Type of influence. Pooling members' resources and power to influence others.
Type of influence. Claiming higher authority support or showing evidence of that support. Legitimate power base.
Type of influence. Logical arguments, emotional appeals.
Type of influence. Self-presentation symbols/behavior. Perceived similarity or appreciation.
Type of influence. Trading of resources for desired behavior. Negotiation, reciprocity.
Soft (Influence) Tactics
Methods of influence that are generally more acceptable. Includes persuasion, impression management, and exchange.
Hard (Influence) Tactics
Methods of influence that are generally less acceptable. Includes silent authority, upward appeal, coalition formation, information control, and assertiveness.
The ability to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness of the organizations of which they are members.
A positive image or model of the future that energizes and unifies employees.
Develop/Communicate the Vision
1st of 4 elements of Transformational Leadership. Frame the vision with sincerity and passion. Use symbols, metaphors.
Model the Vision
2nd of 4 elements of Transformational Leadership. Enact the vision (walk the talk). Symbolize and demonstrate through own behavior. Builds employee trust in leader.
3rd of 4 elements of Transformational Leadership. Questioning of current practices. Discovering/trying out new practices.
Build Commitment to the Vision
4th of of 4 elements of Transformational Leadership. Communicating/modeling commitment through positive emotions and trust in leader. Also through rewards, recognition, celebrations.
Leadership behavior. Assign work, clarify responsibilities, set goals/deadlines, provide feedback, establish procedures, plan future work.
Leadership behavior. Concern for employee needs, make workplace pleasant, recognize employee contributions, listen to employees.
Leadership style. Leaders serve followers toward their need fulfillment, development, growth. Described as selfless, egalitarian, humble, nurturing, empathetic, and ethical.
Leadership style. Influence employee expectations so they achieve desired performance and satisfaction with performance outcomes.
Fielder's Contingency Model
Managerial leadership theory. Based on personality. Best style depends on situational control.
A personal attribute of leadership. Extroversion, conscientiousness.
A personal attribute of leadership. High self-esteem and self-efficacy. Positive self-evaluation.
A personal attribute of leadership. High need for socialized power. Desire to lead others.
A personal attribute of leadership. Inner motivation to pursue goals. Inquisitiveness, action-oriented.
A personal attribute of leadership. Truthfulness. Consistency in words and actions.
Knowledge of Business
A personal attribute of leadership. Understands organization's environment.
A personal attribute of leadership. Above average cognitive ability. Able to solve real-world problems.
A personal attribute of leadership. Recognizing and regulating emotions in self and others.
When leaders are aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values, personality, and self-concept.
Gender Issues (In Leadership)
Female leaders use more participative leadership. Women rated higher on emerging leadership qualities.
The values/assumptions shared within an organization. Defines what is important. Company's DNA.
Most widely shared values and assumptions within organization.
Values/assumptions located throughout an organization that can enhance or oppose the firm's dominant culture.
Organizational Culture Artifacts
Observable symbols and signs of culture. Maintain and transmit organization's culture.
Stories and Legends
Associated with culture artifacts. Social prescriptions of desired behavior. Realistic human side to expectations.
Associated with culture artifacts. Programmed routines (how visitors are greeted).
Associated with culture artifacts. Planned activities for an audience.
Associated with culture artifacts. How employees address each other and outsiders, express emotions, etc.
Associated with culture artifacts. Building and artifacts inside (desks office space) may shape or reflect the firm's culture (Ex: LEGO HQ)
Part of merging cultures. Minimized cultural collision by diagnosing companies. 3 steps:
- identify cultural artifacts
- analyze data for cultural conflict/compatibility
- identify strategies and action plans to bridge cultures
1 of 4 strategies for merging organizational cultures. Acquired company embraces acquiring firm's cultural values.
1 of 4 strategies for merging organizational cultures. Acquiring firm imposes its culture on unwilling acquired firm.
1 of 4 strategies for merging organizational cultures. Cultures combined into a new composite culture.
1 of 4 strategies for merging organizational cultures. Merging companies remain separate with their own culture.
Actions of founders/leaders
Part of changing/strengthening organizational culture. Founder's values and personality. Can reshape culture.
Part of changing/strengthening organizational culture. Artifacts keep culture in place.
Introducing culturally consistent rewards
Part of changing/strengthening organizational culture. Rewards are powerful artifacts (ex: college -
scholarships and grants).
Support workforce stability and communication
Part of changing/strengthening organizational culture. High turnover weakens culture. Strong culture depends on frequent, open communication.
Attracting, selecting and socialization of employees
Part of changing/strengthening organizational culture. Attraction-selection-attrition theory. Socialization practices.
1st stage of organizational socialization. The process by which individuals learn the values, expected behaviors, and social knowledge necessary to assume their roles.
2nd stage of organizational socialization. The learning process through which the newcomers make sense of the organization's physical, social, and strategic/cultural dynamics.
3rd stage of organizational socialization. The adjustment process through which newcomers adapt to new work roles, team norms, etc.
Force Field Analysis
Decision-making technique that helps you make a decision by analyzing the forces for and against a change.
Related to Force Field Analysis. Push organizations toward a change. External forces or leader's vision.
Related to Force Field Analysis. Resistance to change - employee behaviors that block the change process.
Negative Valence of Change
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. Change outcomes perceived as more negative than positive.
Fear of the Unknown
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. People assume the worst when future is unknown. Perceive lack of control.
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. Employees resist change originating from others when in their own sphere of responsibility. Preserve self-esteem by allowing others' ideas to fail.
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. Cost of moving away from our comfort zones. Time/effort to learn new ways.
In-congruent Team Dynamics
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. Norms contrary to desired change.
In-congruent Organizational Systems
1 of 6 reasons why people resist change. Systems/structures reinforce status quo. Rewards, information systems, patterns of authority, career paths, selection criteria.
Lewin's Force Field Analysis Model
Idea that effective change occurs by unfreezing the current situation, moving to a desired condition, and the refreezing the system so it remains in the desired state.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. Highest priority and first strategy for change. Generates urgency. Reduces uncertainty. Can be time consuming and costly.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. Provides new skills/knowledge. Includes coaching. Helps break old routines and adopt new roles. Can be time consuming and costly.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. Employees participate in change process. Reduces not-invented-here syndrome and fear of unknown. Can be time consuming, potential conflict.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. When previous strategies do not minimize stress enough. More motivation, less fear, fewer direct costs. Can be time consuming, costly, may not help.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. Influence by exchange. May be necessary when people clearly lose something. Can be expensive, gains compliance and not commitment.
1 of 6 strategies for reducing restraining forces. When all else fails. Assertive influence. Radical form of unlearning. Can reduce trust, create more subtle resistance, and encourage politics.
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