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92 terms

Sociology Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called ______.
the sociological perspective or imagination
When sociologists group people into catagories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine ______.
social location
The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was _______.
C. Wright Mills
The first goal of each scientific discipline is to ______.
explain why something happens
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was ______.
Auguste Comte
The term "servival of the fittest," which is principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by ______.
Herbert Spencer
The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the ______ and the ______.
bourgeoisie; proletariat
Max Weber used the term Verstehen to mean ______.
to grasp by insight
Karl Marx believed that ______ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that ______ was the force most responsible for social change.
economics; religion
The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study?
social integration
According to symbolic interationists, the deciding factor that determines if change in society is good or bad requires ______.
a framework or context from which to view the meaning of the change
Functionalists refer to how parts of a society fit together to form a whole as ______.
a structure
Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ______ explain the high divorce rates in the US.
the male-female power relationship
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a(n) ______ and John would be seen as a(n)_______.
functionalist; conflict theorist
Which sociological perspectives are best to use in developing an accurate understanding of society?
no single perspective is best, so all three must be utilized
Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of ______.
material culture
When Harry returned from a business meeting in HO Chi Minh City, Vietnam, his wife asked him what he thought of the Vietnamese people. Harry replied, "They're primitive people who eat animals from the streets, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." Harry's reply best qualifies as an example of _______.
ethnocentrism
While in the Peace Corps, Kristina enjoyed a delicious Cambodian dinner that included several entrees. Later that evening she was told that one of the entrees was roast dog, the same canine Kristina had been playing with the day before. At this point Kristina became very ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia. Which statement most applies to Kristina's experience?
Kristina experience culture shock.
Sociologists use the concept of "norms" to describe _____.
expectations or rules of behavior that develop from values
The notion that language determines our conciousness is the basic premise of which concept?
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
If Alice came to class wearing a soiled and torn blouse, she would be violating a ______. But if Alice came to class not wearing a blouse or any other garment, she would be violating a ______.
folkway; more
All of the following statements are examples of countercultures, EXCEPT for which one?
Chicago Club fan
Lamont believes in democracy and equality, and when asked to describe himself he cites his appreciation for people of all races and ethnic heritages. But at the same time, Lamont believes women should not be in the armed services and he avoids taking courses from female professors. In this view, thich statement best describes Lamont?
Lamont is engaged in value contradiction.
Americans usually recognize hard work, education, and efficiency as desired qualities. Where one of these qualities is found the other two also apply. This is an example of _____.
a value cluster
Today we can type our symptoms into a computer search engine and often find out why we are sick, what condition we may have, and how we might treat it. But we still go to see a doctor. This is an example of _____.
cultural lag
What term is used to describe children who are assumed to have been raised by animals in wilderness and isolated from other children, such as the "wild boy of Aveyron"?
feral
What concept do sociologists refer to when they say that "society makes us human"?
socialization
Professor Zale bases her self-concept as a professor on the interactions she has with students and the reactions she receives from them during class. In view of this, which process is Professor Zale utilizing?
Cooley's looking-glass self
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to but Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of ________ by parents.
gender socialization
People and groups that influence our orientation to life -- our self concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors-- are called ______.
agents of socialization
When young people enter college as resident students, they must learn new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This is an example of _______.
resocialization
What term applies to the stages that people pass through from birth to death, beginning with "childhood" and concluding with "the older years"?
the life course
The period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood is called ______.
transitional adulthood (adultolescence)
Because of the power of peers and social institutions, we are all prisoners of socialization.
false
culture
characteristics belonging to a group (such as languages, beliefs, norms, values, behaviors, and material objects) that are passed from one generation to the next
material culture
objects that distinguish a groups of people
nonmaterial culture
a group's way of thinking and doing
patterns of behavior
language, gestures, and other forms of interaction
culture shock
a condition of disorientation that requires people to question their own cultural assumptions
ethnocentrism
the practice of viewing one's own culture as preferable and using it as a yardstick for judging other cultures; an important consequence of culture
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with others
language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
claims that language (not objects or events) creates ways of thinking or percieving
values
what is desirable in life
norms
expectations or rules for behavior
sanctions
reactionsto following or breaking norms
positive sanction
approval of something
negative sanction
disapproval of something
folkways
norms not strictly enforced
mores
norms essential to core values and therefore, are strictly enforced
taboos
norms are so strong that the thought of violating them is universally revolting
subculture
a world within the dominant culture
counterculture
groups with values and norms at odds with the dominant culture
value cluster
made up of related core values that come together to form a larger whole
value contradiction
to follow one value means to come into conflict with the other
cultural universal
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
new technology
the emerging technologies of an era that have significant impact on social life
cultural lag
situations where the material culture changes first and the nonmaterial culture lags behind
cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural traits form one group to another
cultural leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another
feral
children assumed to have been raised by animals; isolated without human contact
socialization
the process by which we learn the way of society
taking the role of other
putting oneself in someone else's shoes
generalized other
the norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people in general; our perception of how people think of us
sesorimotor stage
0-2; learn non verbal communication from direct contact
preoperational stage
2-7; learn to use symbols like language; know body language by end
concrete operational stage
7-12; develop reasoning ability but struggle with abstract concepts like truth
formal operational stage
after 12; abstract thinking comes into play aka critical thinking, problem solving, etc.
global emotions
every experiences 6 basic emotions; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise
sex
refers to anatomy characteristics
gender
the behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females
gender socialization
the ways in which society sets children on different paths in life because they are male or female
peer group
a group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests
gender role
the behaviors and attitudes expected of people because they are male or female
social inequality
a social condition in which privileges and obligations are given to some but denied to others
agents of socialization
individuals or groups that affect our orientations to life; family, neighborhood, religion, daycare, school and peers, workplace
manifest functions
the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
latent functions
the unintended beneficial consequences of people's actions
universality
the same rules apply to everyone
anticipatory socialization
learning to play a role before entering it
resocialization
the process of learning new norms,values, attitudes, and behaviors
total institution
a place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and society is mostly cut off from them
degredation ceremony
rituals someone new to the place may go through to strip them of their current identity and create a new one
life course
the stages of our life from birth to death
childhood
0-12
adolescence
13-17; a social invention
transitional adolescence
aka adultolescence; 18-29
early middle years
30-49
late middle years
50-65
early older years and late older years
65 to death
dynamic self
each of us is actively involved in the construction of the self