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Praxis 5169
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Gravity
Terms in this set (67)
term
product of a real number and one or more variables raised to powers
expression
any collection of terms (they are undefined when the denominator is 0 because division by 0 is not permitted)
equation
mathematical statement that indicates two quantities are equal
system of equations
set of two or more equations with two or more variables
relation
any set of ordered pairs
function
establishes a relationship between inputs and outputs
**each input has EXACTLY one output (you can have the same output multiple times, just not the same input)
composite function
two functions appearing in one
x= domain
f(x)= range
the building blocks of geometry are...
points, lines, and graphs
Points
represented by a dot; has no dimension
Lines
can be drawn through any two points; it has one dimension and extends infinitely in opposite definitions
Collinear Points
three or more points lying on the same line
Non-Collinear Points
points that do not lie on the same line
Ray
part of a line that begins at one point (endpoint) and extends infinitely in the opposite direction
Line Segment
a part of a line that has a beginning and an end (two endpoints)
Plane
extends indefinitely in two dimensions
*needs a minimum of three non-colinnear points to determine
**named by an uppercase letter
Coplanar Points
points that lie in the same plane
*planes can be drawn using three coplanar points
Angle
pair of rays with a common endpoint
Vertex
endpoint of an angle
Adjacent Angles
angles that share a side and a vertex
Complementary Angles
two angles with measures that add up to 90 degrees
**do not have to be adjacent
Supplementary Angles
two angles with measures that add up to 180 degrees
Transversal
line that intersects two parallel lines-- creates several angle relationships
Corresponding Angles
same position at each parallel line-- they are equal
Polygon
plane figure in which three or more sides meet to form angles or vertices
**closed figures
two general types: convex & concave
Convex Polygon
closed polygon in which no line containing a side has a point within the polygon's interior
Concave Polygon
closed polygon that is NOT convex
*has points on the interior of the polygon
'n-gon'
a polygon with n sides-- "15-gon"
Regular Polygons
subset of convex polygons;
equiangular and equilateral
Triangle
closed figure with 3 sides and three angles
-equilateral (3 equal sides)
-isosceles (2 equal sides)
-scalene (no equal sides)
-acute, right, or obtuse (can be classified by angle measures)
Exterior Angle
angle formed by extending the side; it equals the sum of the other two interior angles
Angle-Side Relationship
the largest angle is opposite the longest side, and so forth
Right Triangles
special kind of triangle; side opposite the right angle is the hypotenuse, other two sides are called the legs
Quadrilateral
closed, four-sided figure
sum of interior measures is 360 degrees
Trapezoid
1. has exactly two parallel sides
2. the sides are not necessarily equal
Parallelogram
1. the opposite sides are parallel and have equal length
2. the opposite angles are congruent and consecutive angles are supplementary
3. the diagonals bisect each other
Rhombus
1. has all the properties of a parallelogram
2. has four equal sides
3. the diagonals are perpendicular
Rectangle
1. has all the properties of parallelograms
2. has four right angles
3. the diagonals are congruent
Square
1. has all the properties of parallelograms
2. has all the properties of rhombuses
3. has all the properties of rectangles
Kite
1. the adjacent sides are congruent
2. the diagonals are perpendicular
Similar Geometric Figures
have the same shape but can have different sizes; their corresponding angles must have equal measures and their corresponding sides must be proportional
*don't even have to know the side lengths
Tangent
touches the circle once at just one point and is perpendicular to the radius to the tangent point
Arc
the portion of the circumference between two points on a circle
Central Angle
the vertex of an angle located at the center of the circle
A central angle equals...
its intercepted arc
Sector
area bounded by two radii and the arc between them (think slice of pie)
Transformations
mapping figures into new figures
Image
New figure
Pre-Image
original figure
Reflection
transformation that uses a line like a mirror to map an image
Rotation
transformation that turns a figure about a fixed point (can be clockwise or counterclockwise)
Translation
a transformation that changes the location of an image, but not its size or orientation
Net
deconstructs a geometric solid into two-dimensional plane figures
Segment Bisector
point that divides a segment into two equal parts
Angle Bisector
every point on ________ is the same distance from both sides of the angle
Quantitative Data
data having to do with quantities as the items being measured
Categorical Data
data having to do with categories as the items being measured
Interpolation
estimating values between actual data points
Extrapolation
estimation of future values by extending the graph beyond what is plotted; usually used when the graph shows a clear trend in data
Line of Best Fit
shows overall trend in the data
The Counting Principle
if one activity can be done in 'a' ways, and another can be done 'b' ways, both can be done in a*b ways
Independent Events
two events that occur with one outcome not affected by the other
Dependent Events
the outcome of one event affects the outcome of the next event
Outlier
the reason we cannot rely solely on the mean as a representative statistic of a data set
Skewed
one value very different from the others
Discrete
as opposed to continuous
Algorithm
set of rules or steps that always leads to the correct solution
Flow Chart
graphical representation of the successive steps in solving a problem
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