Only $35.99/year

Community Exam 2

Terms in this set (44)

1. Prevention (Mitigation)
-all hazards mitigation/prevention: an emergency management term for reducing risks to people and property from natural hazards before they occur
-prevention against natural disasters: structural and non structural measures by protecting buildings from the forces of wind and water, and land with developmental restrictions
-Prevention against man-made disasters: includes heightened inspections, improved surveillance and security operations, public health and agricultural surveillance and testing, immunizations, isolation or quarantine and halting of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive threats

2. Preparedness (Primary level prevention)
-personal preparedness, professional preparedness
-community preparedness: the public health security and bioterrorism preparedness and response act of 2002
-disaster and mass casualty exercises

3. Response (secondary)
-First level: occurs at local levels, mobilization of responders (police and fire, public health and emergency services)
-national response framework (NRF), National incident management system (NIMS)
-responses to bioterrorism: biowatch, biosense, project bioshield, cities readiness initiative, strategic national stockpile (SNS), public health information network improves exchange of info electronically
-Role of Nurse: dependent on experience, professional role in community disaster plan, personal readiness and knowledge
-first responder, epidemiology and ongoing surveillance, rapid needs assessment, disaster communication, sheltering, psych distress

4. Recovery (tertiary)
-recovery is about returning to a new normal
-evaluation of how the various phases of the disaster management continuum were caret out, operationalized and might be improved
-ties in with mitigation and preparedness phases
1. Agent: Tularemia (found in rodents, rabbits, hares)
Form of Disease/system affected: pulmonary, cutaneous, GI
Transmission: inhalation, skin, ingestion
Reporting/incubation: Report to local/state health dept (3-4 days)
S/S: fevers, chills, body aches, dry cough, joint pain, ulcers on skin and mouth
Labs: sputum, blood cultures
Tx: streptomycin/gentamicin
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: cipro, doxycycline
Mortality: low 5-15% if untreated

2. Agent: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (ebola, marburg, lassa, muchupo)
Form of Disease/system affected: general viral disease, GI, cutaneous, cardiovascular
transmission: field rodents, anthropods, ticks, person to person
Reporting/incubation: Report suspected cases to local/state departments
S/S: High fever, headache, body aches, mucous membrane hemorrhage, shock, circulatory collapse, bleeding
Labs: Serology
Tx: Ribaviron for lassa fever, supportive therapy for others
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: None
Mortality: High 80-90% ebola-zaire, 50-60% ebola-sudan, variable for others

3. Agent: Smallpox virus
Form of Disease/system affected: general viral infectious disease
transmission: person to person, aerosolized spread, contact with infected body fluids
Reporting/incubation: Declared elimination by WHO, one confirmed case constitutes outbreak-report
S/S: Influenza like symptoms: rash, pustular rash, pustules with scab formation
Labs: Pharyngeal or nasal swab, serology
Tx: Supportive tx, IV antibiotics
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: Smallpox vaccination within first 4 days of exposure
Mortality: moderate

4. Agent: Plague (found in rodents and fleas)
Form of Disease/system affected: Pneumonic (lungs), bubonic: lymph, septicemic (blood)
transmission: P: aerozolized spores spread person to person, B: bite by and infected flea, not person to person, S: multiplication in the blood not spread person to person
Reporting/incubation: Report within 1-5 days
S/S: P: chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, sepsis, respiratory shock, B: tender swollen lymph nodes, bactermia, fever, S: fever, bactermia, sepsis
Labs: buboes culture, blood sputum
Tx: streptomycin, tetracycline, gentamycin
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: Cipro or doxycycline
Mortality: high pneumonic if not treated in 24 hrs

5. Agent: Anthrax (aerobic spore forming)
Form of Disease/system affected: cutaneous, inhaled, GI, oropharyngeal
transmission: skin in direct contact with spores, inhalation, ingestion of undercooked meat, no person to person spread
Reporting/incubation: Report 1-7 days
S/S: fever, fatigue, body aches, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, nausea, bloody diarrhea, necrotizing ulcers and edema
Labs: serology, ulcer exudate
Tx: cipro, doxycycline for 60 days
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: cipro or doxy
Mortality: high with inhalation (90%)

6. Agent: Botulism (spore forming bacterium found in soil and contaminated food)
Form of Disease/system affected: neuroparalytic illness
transmission: ingestion, direct contact of open wound with toxin in soil/food, no person to person spread
Reporting/incubation: report within 12-72 hours
S/S: difficulty swallowing, double or blurred vision, dilated pupils, constipation (infant botulism), descending flaccid paralysis
Labs: stool, vomitis, suspect food samples
Tx: prompt diagnosis, ventilatory support, antitoxin from CDC
Post Exposure Prophylaxis: none
Mortality: low