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cerebral cortex
For perception to occur, sensory nerve impulses must reach which of the following levels of the CNS?
Nocioceptors
Which of the following receptor types has the slowest adaptation rate?
1. type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors
4. corpuscles of touch (Meissner corpuscles)
cutaneous receptors associated with fine touch
Hair root plexus
example of tactile sensation
muscle spindles
special muscle fibers
Spinothalamic, gracile fasciculus, posterior column-medial lemniscus, cuneate fasciculuc
From the following list of spinal cord pathways, choose the ones that are together responsible for carrying all conscious sensory information in the spinal cord:
third-order neurons
carry nerve impulses to the primary somatosensory area in the postcentral gyrus.
the gracile nucleus of the medulla
Somatic afferent fibers relaying information regarding the position of the ankle joint synapse where
posterior column-medial lemniscus
impulses for conscious proprioception and most tactile sensations
anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
impulses for subconscious proprioception
lateral spinothalamic tract
impulses for pain and temperature sensations
anterior spinothalamic tract
impulses for itch, tickle, crude touch and pressure sensations
tectospinal tract
impulses that move the head and eyes in response to visual or auditory stimuli
lateral corticospinal tract
impulses for precise voluntary movements of the hands and feet
corticobulbar tract
conveys nerve impulses from motor cortex to skeletal muscles of head and neck to coordinate precise, voluntary movements
anterior corticospinal tract
impulses for coordination of movements of the trunk and proximal parts of the limbs
Perception
the conscious awareness and interpretation of a sensation.
Sensation
the conscious or subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal conditions of the body
lamellated corpuscles (pacinian corpuscles)
Receptors for pressure and vibration that consist of an oval multi-layered capsule surrounding a dendrite, and that are located in the skin as well as subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, are called
Tendon organs
_____ are proprioceptors located at the junction of a tendon and a muscle.
posterior column-medial lemniscus
The _____ pathway conducts impulses for conscious proprioception and most tactile sensations.
final common pathway
Lower motor neurons that carry information from the CNS to skeletal muscle fibers form the _____.
intrafusal
Gamma motor neurons are responsible for the innervation of _____ fibers of the muscle spindle.
stimulus → sensory receptor → nerve impulse → conduction along a sensory neural pathway → region of the brain → integration → sensation
Which is the correct order of events for generating a sensation?
The hypophyseal portal veins
carry hypothalamic hormones to the anterior pituitary.
kidneys
NOT direct targets of anterior pituitary hormones?
aldosterone
adrenal gland hormone that is essential for life?
Alpha cells
secrete glucagon
beta cells
secrete insulin
delta cells
secrete somatostatin
F cells
pancreatic polypeptid
thymus
The endocrine gland that produces hormones that mediate the proliferation and maturation of T cells of the immune system is the _____.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) also called vasopressin
A basilar skull fracture which injures the hypophyseal fossa (seat of the sella turcica) of the sphenoid bone will directly affect the release of:
pineal
Which endocrine gland is part of the epithalamus?
hypothalamus; pituitary gland
The infundibulum attaches the _____ to the _____.
posterior pituitary; neural
The pituitary gland consists of two anatomically and functionally separate portions; the smaller _____ is composed of _____ tissue.
anterior pituitary
Hypothalamic hormones travel via the primary plexus, the hypophyseal portal veins, and the secondary plexus, where they diffuse into the _____.
calcitonin; calcium
Parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland produce the hormone _____, which helps to regulate the level of _____ in the blood.
follicular cells
Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are produced by:
adrenal medulla
The adrenal gland functions as two separate endocrine glands: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Which ones effects mimic the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
zona glomerulosa
Hormones that regulate sodium and potassium levels in the blood are secreted by the _____ region of the adrenal cortex.
zona fasciculata
The middle zone, or ________ ___________ , is the widest of the three zones and consists of cells arranged in long, straight cords. The cells of the ________ ____________ secrete mainly glucocorticoids, primarily cortisol. The glucocorticoids are so named because they affect glucose metabolism.
Chromaffin
_____ cells of the adrenal gland have the same embryonic origin as all sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
third
The pineal gland is located near the roof of the _____ ventricle of the brain.
anterior pituitary; human growth hormone (hGH)
Somatotrophs are cells located in the _____ which secrete _____.
Chromaffin
_____ cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE).
gonadotrophs
_____ secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
glucagon
In the pancreas, alpha cells secrete
aldosterone
In the adrenal cortex, zona glomerulosa cells secrete
bone and kidney
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) release affects target cells in which two organs?
chief cells
Which endocrine cell releases parathyroid hormone?
Pyramidal pathways
- innervate skeletal muscles only.
- contain upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons.
- extend from the cerebral cortex, through the medulla, and then to their destination, either through cranial nerves or through spinal cord tracts and spinal nerves.
skilled movements of the hands.
Corticobulbar tracts carry information that coordinates the voluntary movement of all of the following except
brain stem
Upper motor neurons of the indirect pathways begin in the: