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Psychology Statistics
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Terms in this set (42)
statistics
characterizes a sample
parameter
characterizes a population
sample
subset of observations from the population of interest
population
ALL participants
descriptive statistics
help us organize and summarize data
inferential statistics
draw conclusions about populations based on sample data
independent variable
used to describe/explain DV differences or cause the DV changes
dependent variable
outcome of interest in an experiment, what we measure
extraneous variables
variables (not the IV) that impact the DV, interfere with our findings
quantitative
tells about amount or degree of variable
qualitative
tells if things are different or the same but not amount
nominal
categorize people/subjects into groups, groups usually have a title
ordinal
NOT equal intervals
(ex. educational level, place in a contest, standing in graduation class)
interval
equal intervals, categorize, rank order
bar graph
set of NONadjoining rectangles whose heights represent frequency values, NOMINAL data
histogram
Set of ADJOINING rectangles whose heights represent the frequency of their values; QUANTITATIVE data
frequency polygon
Series of dots whose heights represent the frequency of values connected by a line; QUANTITATIVE data
positive skew
mean>median
negative skew
mean<median
central tendency
single score representing the entire data set and it helps us interpret single scores (ex. mean, mode, range)
variability
a way of summarizing how spread out the scores in a distribution are
mode
most commonly occurring score
median
value that divides a distribution into two equal halves
mean
arithmetic average
μ
mean for a population
x̄
mean for a sample
correlation
quantify the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
spurious
artificially high or low
empirical
based on actual scores
generalizability
can apply findings from one sample or context to others
random sample
subset of a population chosen so that all samples of size N have an equal opportunity of being selected
correlational studies
participants come with their group membership (ex. # of pets, political affiliation, gender)
Sampling distribution
distribution of sample statistics
Frequency distribution
distribution of individual scores
conceptual hypothesis
general statement about the relationship between the IV and DV or about the magnitude of a relationship
statistical hypothesis
hypothesis written in mathematical notation
null hypothesis
assumes there is no relationship/difference/effect
1 tailed test vs 2 tailed test
type I error
rejecting a true null
type II error
retaining a false null
matched pairs
the experimenter made the matches (ex. basketball dunking)
repeated measures
same participants are tested twice
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