23 terms

Human overpopulation

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Natality
birth rate per 1000
mortality
death per 1000
immigration
moving into area
emigration
moving out of area
fertility
#organisms produced per female in a population
fecundity
physical ability to reproduce
life span
maximum # of years species can survive
life expecctancy
average age an individual is expected to live
Thomas Malthus
"Essay on Principle of Population"
Predicts food, famine, disease is due to overpopulation
Neo-Malthusian
advocate birth control to stabilize population
Neo-Marxist
Achieve social justice to bring about population stability
Brandt Line
Divides industrialized, developed worlds(north of line, US, Japan) from underdeveloped worlds(India, Bangladesh, Africa, South America)
20% of population north of Brandt line uses 80% of world's resources
Food security
access to constant food source
malnourishment
imbalance in vitamins/nutrients, causes kwashiorkor or marasmus
Age structure histograms
Each bar = one age group
Males females separated by vertical line
Rapid growth = developing countries(wider bases, more young people)
Zero growth = country reached replacement level fertility(all bars have same length)
Negative growth = base is smaller than top
replacement level fertility
enough offspring to replace parents
Demographic transition
Process during which developing countries improve living conditions and demographic status
Characterized by decreased death and birth rates
First step in demographic transition
High death and birth rates
Second step in demographic transition
Lower death rate, high birth rate
Third step in demographic transition
Low death rate, low birth rate
Urbanization
Growth of cities, sped up after Industrial Revolution
Problems with cities in developing world
Lack infrastructure, organization, stability
Lack resources, food, shelter, jobs, sanitation
Many people move into suburbs/rural areas, leading to urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Unlimited outward expansion of a city, characterized by lower population densities, higher freeway congestion, less open space, and decay in central cities
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