History 181 Final
Terms in this set (38)
--When was the Baath Party founded and where?
--What are the three terms identified with its platform?
--Where and when did the Baath Party come into power?
--What was "De-Baathification"?
--Founded in 1930's and 40's in Syria
--Unity, Liberty, Socialism
--1963 (regimes in Syria and Iraq)
--Baath party members and influencers dismissed from their jobs and demobilization of the Iraqi military
Who is the Prime Minister of Iraq?
Who is the Prime Minister of Israel?
Who is the supreme leader of Iran?
Who is the president of Iran?
Who is the president of Egypt?
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Which countries of the Middle East are monarchies?
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Jordan
Which political party is in power in Turkey?
The Justice and Development Party (AKP)
Who is the president of Syria?
When and where did the constitutional movements achieve the first three constitutional governments in the Middle East?
Ottoman Empire in 1876, Egypt in 1923, Iran in 1906
--Who nationalized oil in Persia?
--with what outcome?
--Mosaddiq overthrown in 1953 by US/Britain backed coup and Shah put back in power, strengthened ties between Iran and US
--Who nationalized the Suez Canal?
--With what outcome?
--Suez Affair/Triple Aggression
--What was the United Arab Republic?
--Why did it come apart?
--State consisting of Egypt and Syria (Arabic nationalism)
--Egyptians dominated the state, imposed socialism on Syria which led to a coup in Syria because of the diminished political life
--What was the era of "liberal democracy" in the Middle East?
--What were its shortcomings in Egypt?
--Model of democratic institutions being adopted, after imperialism and before baathist/socialist period
--clampdown on political opportunity and votes that count
When and what was Arab Socialism?
1952, Ideology advocating state control of Arab economies (land, tax and social reform)
Identify three things Anwar Sadat did to try to promote positive economic change in Egypt:
The "Peace Dividend" with Israel (helped tourism), The opening of the economy to native and foreign capitalists, lifting subsidies on his people
What is political Zionism?
The belief that Jews should form and maintain a state for themselves (1896)
What is the Taif accord and its significance?
--an agreement reasserting southern Lebanon to Lebanon control in October and November 1989
--Ended the Lebanon Civil War, reoriented Lebanon towards the Arab World
What 4 territories came under Israeli military occupation as a result of the 1967 war?
2. Gaza Strip
3. West Bank
4. Golan Heights
Which territory did Israel exchange for peace to which country? When?
Sinai after 1973 war
What is UN Resolution 242? What are its basic terms?
1. Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the 1967 war
2. The right of every state in the area to "live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats and acts of force"
--What was the "Declaration of Principles"?
--1993, Called for Israel to withdrawal its forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho within three months and for the PLO to set up a self-governing authority
--USA, Israel, PLO (Clinton, Rabin, Arafat)
--First step towards full autonomy for the occupied territories other than East Jerusalem
5 issues that were tabled for further discussion during Oslo II negotiations`
1. The future of Jerusalem
2. The dispersed Palestinians' right to return to their homes or to receive compensation from Israel
3. Future of Jewish settlements in territories conceded to the Palestinians
4. configuration of final borders between Israel and the projected Palestinian state
5. Status of the Palestinian Authority
--When was the Iran-Iraq war?
--List three effects, consequences, or costs of the war for Iraq and for Iran
--Iraq: Solidified national identity, 1/2 million lives lost, closer ties to US
-Iran: United the divided country, 1 million lives lost, distant ties to US and western countries
Why did Saddam Husayn order the invasion of Kuwait?
1. Accused Kuwait of pumping Iraq's share of oil from their jointly owned oil field
2. Thought that Kuwait was plotting against Iraq by overproducing oil to drive down its price on the world market
--Who founded the Muslim Brotherhood?
--dedicated to Islamic reform, beginning with reform of individuals (morality, solidarity, social justice)
What is Arab Nationalism and when was it a politically significant idea?
--the belief that the Arab constitute a single political community (or nation) and should have a common government and that Arabs are all part of one nation
--late 19th century to 1967 war
What was a League of Nations mandate?
Legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another
Identify 5 mandates and indicate which country was the mandatory power for each
1. Palestine --> Britain
2. Iraq --> Britain
3. Jordan --> France
4. Syria --> France
5. Lebanon --> France
What and when was the Balfour Declaration?
Established a Jewish national home in Palestine, 1917
What was the first Intifada?
Uprising, or shaking off, of Israeli occupation by Palestinians; boycotted manufactures, refused to pay taxes; initially a homegrown spontaneous protest
What were the underlying circumstances of the first Intifada?
Summit meeting in 1987 where Arab leaders did not pay attention to Palestine but resumed diplomatic ties with Egypt --> the PLO should stop seeking their diplomatic and military support
What were the significant consequences of the first Intifada?
Palestinian National Council vote to declare an independent "State of Palestine" (two state solution), achieve foreign recognition and international legitimacy
What were Ataturk's "Six Arrows"?
What is 'defensive development"?
Strengthen states in the face of internal and external (military and economic) and make governments more proficient in managing their populations and their resources (used by Muhammad Ali during Napoleon invasion)
What, where, and when were the Tanzimat Reforms?
--Creation of the new institutions to safeguard the subjects' basic rights to assess and levy taxes fairly, and to conscript and train soldiers (public life restructured)
Give three examples of concessions granted to Middle Eastern rulers to European entrepreneurs
1. Oil from Persia granted to Britain in 1905
2. Suez Canal
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
A program where the US government offered military and economic aid to any Middle Eastern country resisting Communist aggression, whether direct or indirect
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