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ISB 202 Final - Johnston
Terms in this set (93)
Just like plants, most animals are autotrophic, right?
No, most animals are heterotrophic
About how many million species of animals are known to exist?
2 million species
Most animal species are invertebrates. True or False?
True, >1.95 Million
Most animals exhibit bilateral symmetry. What type of symmetry is exhibited by things like starfish?
What animal is responsible for producing most of the limestone that exists on Earth?
We don't get tapeworms from chicken meat, so is eating under-cooked chicken safe?
What phylum of animals was first to have a complete digestive system?
What phylum of animals was the first to have organs?
What phylum of animals was the first to have tissues?
What phylum of animals has no tissues or organs and also lacks symmetry?
What does "coelum" mean? What phylum of animals was the first to have coelomate bodies?
Body cavity, Mullosks
There are 11 phyla of animals, ranging from the sponges to the "highest form," the __________.
Blood flukes are flatworms that cause shistosomiasis in humans, especially in developing countries. What other animal is involved in the reproductive cycle of blood flukes?
While there may be fewer species of them, how does the number of individual roundworms (nematodes) on Earth compare to the number of insects?
More total number of roundworms than insects
One kind of roundworm plugs the lymph system of humans, leading to a disease called _____________.
What is the major way in which humans get tapeworms?
Undercooked beef, pork, fish
What slimy little garden creature is a common example of the mollusk phylum of animals?
The annelid phylum is composed of creatures with segmented bodies. What type of annelid is seen on MSU sidewalks in the early spring months after rainy nights?
Which phylum makes up over half of the total known species of animals in the world? (Insects are part of this phylum!)
What "crustacean" is included in the name of a U.S. national restaurant chain?
Does a millipede really have a thousand legs?
Do sharks have bones?
Cartilage, not bones
Besides having a backbone, some sort of major nerve cord, a pharynx for breathing and eating, what else do vertebrates have (at least in the embryonic stage)?
What were the first vertebrates on land? (Hint: They still need water to moisten their skins and to reproduce.)
Reptiles likely arose from amphibians. Do reptiles have to rely on water for fertilization of eggs?
Are the shells of reptilian eggs hard or soft?
Soft and leathery
Of all organisms, birds are the only ones with feathers. True or False?
Mammals get their name from the Latin word, "mamma," which means what?
What is the only mammal that can truly fly?
Do any mammals lay eggs?
Placental animals are mammals, but marsupial animals aren't, right?
False, marsupials are animals
Where is the greatest concentration of marsupial species today?
In placental animals, does the mother's blood mix with that of the fetus?
No, that is the purpose of placenta (to not need to mix blood for nutrients)
Of the 2,000,000 known species of animals, most are _______. (vertebrates, invertebrates?)
What is "ecology?"
The study of nature
What is the difference between an ecologist and an environmentalist?
Ecologists study nature, environmentalists want to preserve nature
When one species of organisms is eliminated from the biosphere, why are other species affected?
All organisms interact in some way (food web)
A "population" of a species is whatever we define it to be, right?
An ecosystem includes the organisms and all of the abiotic factors. What does abiotic mean?
Non-living (rainfall, temperature, soil)
What does the word "niche" mean?
The position or function of an organism in it's community
What are the four major ways in which species interact?
Predation, Parasitism, Mutualism, Commensalism
What is commensalism?
One organism benefits without hurting or helping another organism
What is implied by the word, "sustainability?"
Ability to maintain current use of resources
Technically speaking, is littering environmental degradation?
What is the difference between "point" and "non-point" pollutants? Which is easier to handle?
Point has a specific source, it is easier to control
What are the three major factors that determine how harmful a pollutant is? (Toxicity is one of them.)
Degree of toxicity, concentration, persistence
What was Rev. Thomas Malthus' theory about population and food supply?
He predicted mass starvation
Why was Malthus not correct about the date at which mass starvation would occur?
Agricultural science, contraceptives, communication of knowledge
How does Malthus' theory look at the present time?
It looks like it is coming true
How many more people are born than die each second?
2.5 people per second
About what portion of the population growth in the next 25 years will occur in developing countries?
What is the upper limit (%) of population growth in the human species?
5% each year
In what two areas of the world are population increases causing the most problems?
Africa and Central America
Can we feed all of the people in the world in the year 2020? (Careful!!!!)
From a latitude standpoint, where do 2/3 of the world's people live? With respect to that area, where is most of the food produced?
In the tropics (25 to 25), Most food is produced in the north (30-45)
What type of "reproductive strategy" is characterized by long lives of individuals that respond to a fixed amount of resources?
Flies, mosquitoes, rats, (and many others), all have what kind of reproductive strategy?
From an environmental niche standpoint, are humans "generalists" or "specialists?"
In the environmental degradation equation, PxAxT, what does each letter represent?
Population, Amount of resources used per person, Technological level
There is a very high correlation between population, poverty and environmental degradation!
Would you rather live in a country with a pyramidal or one with a columnar population growth function?
Columnar, Pyramidal is bad
What is the fertility rate for zero population growth in developing countries? In developed countries?
What are the two major reasons for increasing the educational levels of women in developing countries?
They control population, produce 50-80% of food
Women are responsible for producing about how much of the food in developing countries?
Please name a lot of environmental degradation problems for which humans (and population growth) are responsible.
Air pollution, Water pollution, food production issues, wastes, biodiversity depletion
What is the troposphere? Is that were the ozone layer is?
The lowest layer of the atmosphere, no
Is ozone good or bad?
Good in stratosphere, bad near the surface because it contributes to global warming
Is the production of global warming gases an east-west or a north-south problem?
Why will malaria incidence likely increase with global warming?
Longer summers will increase time for mosquito bites
About how fast are the rain forests disappearing?
Football field a second, 50 million acres a year
What is the relationship between population, wealth and use of natural resources between developed and developing countries?
Developed countries have 20% population, 85% wealth, 90% resources, and 75% of pollution+wastes
What sector is responsible for the majority of solid wastes produced in the U.S.?
Mining and Petroleum
What is the number one ground water pollutant in the U.S.?
About what percent of the water on Earth is salt water in oceans?
What does the word "riparian" mean?
Is the Ogallala aquifer in the central U.S. one that is readily rechargeable?
How much of the fresh water in the world is found in the five Great Lakes of the U.S.?
What are monocropping, desertification, waterlogging and salinization?
Monocropping: farming in rows, desertification: overgrazing+soil erosion, water-logging: too much irrigation+no draining, salinization: too much salt from evaporation of water
How does the literacy rate of women compare to that of men in most developing countries?
Significantly higher for men
What is the major global warming gas? What are the two main sources of increases in this gas?
CO2, Coal + Petroleum and Slash and Burn Agriculture
Besides water vapor, what are the five "greenhouse effect" gases in our atmosphere?
1. Carbon Dioxide
3. Nitrous Oxide
What is the major source of methane pollution in the U.S.?
What are the three main causes of biodiversity depletion in the world?
Introduced species, overexploitation, habitat destruction
What human activities are happening in many large animal preserves that are ruining the habitats that were set up to protect endangered species of animals?
Hunting, deforestation, controlled burning
About what percent of the species of soil bacteria have been classified?
Why is classifying the unknown soil bacteria and learning more about them a good idea?
May be beneficial for humans
What's "bad" about monocropping, especially in LDCs?
Leads to soil erosion
What industry is responsible for about 2/3 of the world's annual fresh water use?
What portion of the world's population earns only about $1 U.S. dollar per day?
What portion of the world's population earns only about $2 U.S. dollars per day?
When discussing pesticides in the environment, what is "biological magnification?"
Increasing levels of pollution as you move up the food chain
Is a detritivor autotrophic or heterotrophic?
What is your ISB 202 instructor's one-word answer to most of the problems humans face?
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