Reform and Expansion Xianity Midterm
Terms in this set (29)
acts as the head of a monastery. Under the Rule of St. Benedict, controls most aspects of monastic life. were present all around Europe for many centuries because of how widespread monastic orders had become. would ensure that the monks are adhering to the Rule and are balancing devotion to God with manual labor.
Benedict of Nursia
(480-547) lived in sixth century Italy around the disintegration of the Roman Empire. Though educated in Rome, he lived in solitude for many years after becoming disgusted with the paganism he witnessed there. After abandoning a settlement of monasteries he had set up, he founded a new monastery on a mountain above Cassino, 80 miles south of Rome. "St. Benedict" An Italian monk who is mainly known for his rule which would shape how monastic orders worked. Benedict wanted to create a rule in which monks would be continuously doing things, whether it be reading, praying, or doing manual labor. His rule affected both the spiritual and administrative aspects of running a monastery, and his rule greatly contributed to the rise of monasticism.
Benedict of Aniane
(747-821) A French Benedictine monk who was a very successful abbot under Charlemagne. He implemented Benedict's rule in the monasteries where he was an abbot. He also was the head of a council which created a code of regulations ("codex regularum"). He was a big supporter of Benedict's rule and utilized it greatly in the monasteries he was involved with. He advised Louis the Pious.
Berengar of Tours
(c. 999-1088), teacher at Chartres, accused of denying Eucharist, claimed that it was spiritual, not physical, a forerunner of scholasticism, said says his conscience was compelling him not to believe in transubstantiation.
This is the name for the Holy Roman Empire under the rule of Charlemagne, and a decidedly Christian empire, despite sometimes warring with other Christians. It dominated land from beyond the Pyrenees to the south west and into modern Germany. This empire would continue to exist in some form for the next thousand years, dominating Europe.
In the eleventh century, cathedrals rapidly began developing schools of higher education attached to them. It was here that the systematic study of Christian teaching was first undertaken, producing many commentaries on the Bible. These schools invented the idea of "theology." These cathedral schools would eventually develop into the universities of Western Europe.
First Holy Roman emperor, crowned by Pope Leo III in 800. Implemented, spread Benedictine order on a large scale (had the Rule of St. Benedict copied and distributed to monks). Consolidated Christianity within the empire. (Charles the Great), 768CE Charlemagne becomes King of Francs unites divided areas rivaling size of Roman empire. 800CE Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor; crowning done in church, crowned by pope, denoting intersection between church and state. Theologians call him more important than bishops, Charlemagne said he special task to maintain order in church.
900 Abbot Berno opened new monastery in Cluny, France that strictly adhered to Rule of Saint Benedict. Even went beyond rule and said that all monks should spend their days in silence. Produced hundreds of daughter houses, ensuing spread of idea that seclusion from secular world was a more holy lifestyle.
This was essentially a schedule of prayer and devotion that monks would follow. It spanned the entire day from before dawn to after dusk. The day started with Vigils, followed by Lauds at daybreak. During the day the designated times were Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline. Each of these times would involve the reading of Psalms and other Scripture, or reputable explanation of Scriptures. The exact number of psalms and responses read could be adjusted based on the time of year, but this was the basic format.
(1017-1056) Holy Roman Emperor/German king, involved with Tusculum Popes (Benedict VIII, John XIX, Benedict IX), Benedict IX renounced papacy to marry cousin, marriage fell through, wanted to come back to papacy making Henry involved in the split between East and West
(1049-1054) Donation of Constantine, Easter Synod of 1049 which declared the celibacy of the clergy, fighting simony, and the use of chant and encouraged liturgical development. Proposed that Popes only be elected by cardinals. Known for his travels through Europe, enacting his reforms.
Louis the Pious
(778-840) Son of Charlemagne, he was the last ruler to maintain the unity of the Carolingian Empire. Created a strict observance on the Benedictine Rule. His reforms focused on a revival of the inner spiritual and moral life of the clergy. The Instituta Patrum reinstated a common life for the cathedral and collegiate chapters and ensured the safety and independence of the churches. Civil war erupted during his reign (840CE) between his sons. Because of this the Carolingian empire dissolves. Kings from each new area would give monasteries to noble-men in order to ensure their loyalty. This caused the monastic reforms to be temporarily halted.
The Medieval Period saw a growing divide between secular/spiritual life-clerical/monastic life. Religious thought gravitated to the idea that it was impossible to live pure life if living 'secular' life. Religious community where people, mostly monks, lived and practiced religion particularly in seclusion. Created by Saint Benedict. Between the 6th and 11th centuries, thousands of Benedictine Monasteries were founded in western Europe. The most famous was at Cluny.
A pope and a leader of the first crusade. On November 27, 1095, Pope Urban II began to preach in Clermont, France on the importance of taking back to Holy Land and the eastern church from the Seljuk Turks. The first Crusade is the first instance in which violence is seen as a sacred act. Urban said that dying on a Crusade in a state of repentance and confession would guarantee immediate entry into heaven after death.
a)Established second Lateran council, in 1139
b) Catholics think marriage is a good thing but Catholic Church prohibit clerical marriage
c) Monks are prohibited from marriage.
Monks are isolated from the secular world for only monastery is only safe place for them to keep holy and marriage would lead them to the outside world with the contact with women.
d)Scandals from Pope Benedict IX: he Wanted to marry his cousin, so renounced papacy. Later, when marriage fell through, he wanted to come back but was rejected by Roman Emperor, Henry III
The Crusades were started by Christians in order to retake the Holy Land (Jerusalem). The significance was that the Crusades reflected a set of changing attitudes toward the idea of violence being a way to preserve what was sacred and holy. There were a total of 8 crusades but only the 1st one declared by Urban II was successful. The Christian armies finally made it to the city of Jerusalem. These Crusades were considered a journey or pilgrimage for the faithful. Another reason for the Crusades was the impending attack of the Seljuk Turks on Byzantine territory.
people contrasted the goodness of the spiritual realm with the corruption of embodied material existence
Cathars were radical dualists who rejected the created world as evil at the end of the twelfth century; Cathars have an organized counter-church; they had their own parallel hierarchies and also they are the challenge to the authority of the church
Bernard of Clairveaux
(1090-1153) Abbott of the monastery of Clairvaux in 1115. He worked to reform the rule of St. Benedict that had been previously followed by the Cluny Movement. He advocated physical labor in terms of reading and writing commentary of the Bible and was opposed to the rise of Scholasticism. Cistercian, wrote on Song of Songs. His goal was to have readers of the Song of Songs enter into a kind of marriage with God and ultimately receive the "kiss." Believed achieving a union with God was a process in which one must 1st: kneel before God and ask for forgiveness (kissing his feet), 2nd: With God's help, do good works (kissing his hands), and 3rd: receive kiss of God (which he believed to be tangible) and reach unity with him.
Cathars rejected the Papal hierarchy and formed an organized counter church. Had dualist beliefs- believed in the evil of material things and that one needed to reject the physical aspects of the world to reach spiritual purity. Rejected marriage and all things that dealt with sex (no eating meat or drinking milk). Pope Innocent III began crusade in South France in the 13th century to rid of the Cathars.
monastic order developed after Cluniac order. Cistercians felt Cluniacs were too laid back in their faith and too focused on wealth. Cistercians were distinct because they made themselves extremely isolated in the wilderness and believed in analyzing scripture (to them work= reading the Bible, writing sermons). Took the message of the scriptures outside of the monastery for missionary work. Unlike scholastics, the Cistercians did not abide by reason and logic, but instead were more interested in the experience one had when touched by scripture.
Pope in 11th century, his focus in on the issue of lay investiture (the practice of secular people choosing who will hold religious office). He fought to ensure that the Bishop of Rome is supreme leader of the church and the world, that he can't be judged by anyone on Earth. Also believed the Pope should rule over powers of the state. Dealt with the excommunication of Henry IV and allowed him back into the church, swinging power in favor of the papacy.
Western Papal Schism
After Celestine resigned, Boniface VIII got in an argument with the king of France- Unam Sanctum- tried to exact spiritual power over the king. Boniface dies and Clement V took up residence in Avignon. In 1378 Urban VI elected, but is insane. So Cardinals elect new Pope, Clement VII who the King of France recognizes, but the Italian princes refuse to, instead they back Urban VI. There were 2 Popes for 30 years. Eventually both died and two more were elected by their followers, Benedict XIII and Gregory XII. Meeting at Piza declared that both Popes should rescind their claims. They elect Alexander V, but he dies. Eventually John XXIII was elected, but was not recognized by the King of Naplea. Benedict XIII, Gregory XII and John XXIII all argue over their claims. John calls the Council of Constance in Germany, 1415. At the Council of Constance, John resigns, council moves on without a Pope. Idea of Sacrosanta formed- the council derives power from Christ and everyone including the Pope is bound to obey it in all things pertaining to faith.
Heresy is anything that contradicts the official doctrine of the church.. It is synonymous with not being orthodoxy, or right belief. In the 12th century, heretics, those who committed heresy, could be tried and executed. With the emergence of new monastic orders and beliefs, the church felt that it was under attack making accusations of heresy common. Example would be the Cathars and their emphasis on all things physical as evil--this in turn made their view that Jesus could not have been incarnate because the physical world is evil. This was considered heresy because of its denial of Jesus' incarnation.
Holy Roman Emperor from 1084-1105. Opposed Gregory VII's policies by naming bishops in Italy and Germany at will and declaring papal doctrines illegitimate. Was accused of kidnapping Gregory in 1075 and was excommunicated from the Church in 1076. Eventually repented to the church and Gregory lifted the excommunication in 1077.
Lay investiture was the act of people in secular office choosing Bishops in their principalities. Gregory VII asserted religious authority over all secular authority and banned lay investiture in the process. There was a controversy between him and King Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor. Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV and deposed him, asserting that the Pope had power over all secular positions as he was the vicar of Christ.
Lived from 1079-1142 and became known for his logical exposition on the Bible. He was a university professor that put logic over faith. He was a Paris theologian. Most importantly, he wrote Sic et Non (Yes or No). In this work he wanted to resolve the contradictions in the writings of early theologians by using logical deduction to determine who was right and who was wrong. Also, he wrote Theologia Christiana, which was a controversial discussion of Christian thought. He was a key figure in the rise of scholasticism and the affirmation of philosophy.
Sermons on the Song of Songs
a document written by Bernard of Clairvaux addressed specifically to monks. It highlighted his view that Solomon's Song of Songs is a representation of the personal relationship between a person and God, in which he shows spirituality as a progression. The different types of kisses represent different levels of maturity in this relationship: a kiss on the feet is repentance to Jesus, a kiss on the hand is progress in life through works, and a kiss on the mouth is final unity with God, a unity that can only be reached through Christ, a reward of bliss. This is important as it shows the Cistercian view of how faith should be approached, through a deep a personal relationship, not through the logic of scholasticism.
The act of buying episcopal office. Simony got its name from Simon Magus. It was one of the main catalysts for the Cluny Movement, which aimed to bring priestly reform in which they would ban Simony and Marriage in priesthood. Pope Leo IX made it officially illegal during his time as pope.
A movement in the 13th century, where groups of women would live a life similar to that of nuns, but would never take any formal vows. All these women lived impoverished lives and were also abstinent. The Beguines were outside the official rule of the Catholic Church, although in 1216 the Pope granted these women permission to continue their way of life. Allowing women into the monastic life. Norius III allows women to continue living in these communities, going against the fourth Lateran Council.
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