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Mineral salts that become electrically charged when in solution


Fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney. Filtrate is similar to plasma but with far less protein. Urine is formed from f iltrate.

nitrogenous wastes

Products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen. Filtrate is similar to plasma but with far less protein. Urine is formed from f iltrate.

peristaltic waves

Sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow


Serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity


Liquid portion of blood, composed primarily of water ( 90%), and contain-ing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids, and various waste products


Fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid


Androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate. Testosterone is also responsible for the development of secondary sex characteris-tics ( musculature, hair patterns, thickened vocal cords, and so forth).

cyst/ o vesic/ o

bladder cyst/ o/ scope: instrument for examining the bladder - scope: instrument for examining

glomerul/ o


lith/ o


meat/ o

opening, meatus

nephr/ o ren/ o


pyel/ o

renal pelvis

ur/ o -uria

urine, urinary tract

andr/ o


balan/ o

glans penis

epididym/ o


orch/ o orchi/ o orchid/ o test/ o

testis (plural: testes)

perine/ o

perineum ( area between scro-tum [ or vulva in the female] and anus)

spermat/ o sperm/ o

spermatozoa, sperm cells

varic/ o

dialated vein

vas/ o

vessel; vas deferens; duct

vesicul/ o

seminal vesicle

albumin/ o

albumin, protein

azot/ o

nitrogenous compounds

bacteri/ o

bacteria ( singu-lar, bacterium)

crypt/ o


gonad/ o

gonads, sex glands

kal/ i

potassium ( an electrolyte)

keton/ o

ketone bodies (acids and ace-tones)

noct/ o


olig/ o





forming, producing, origin


abnormal condition (produced by some-thing specified)




slit, fissure


through, across


Absence of urine production or urinary output


Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds ( urea, creati-nine, and uric acid) in the blood; also called uremia

bladder neck obstruction ( BNO)

Blockage at base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from pass-ing into the urethra

chronic renal failure

Renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with nor-mal dietary intake


Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a " burning sensa-tion" while urinating

end- stage renal disease ( ESRD)

Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost


Involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence


Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another


Voiding urine at frequent intervals


Involuntary delay in initiating urination


Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract

nephrotic syndrome

Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane


Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed


Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excre-tion of the end products of metabolism

polycystic kidney disease ( PKD)

Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys

vesicoureteral reflux ( VUR)

Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter

Wilms tumor

Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children


Congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia or anorchism


Failure to form or ejaculate semen


Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis


Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis

erectile dysfunction ( ED)

Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse


Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structures


Developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum


Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis


Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord

digital rectal examination ( DRE)

Screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormal-ly firm areas that might indicate cancer

electromyography ( EMG)

Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using elec-trodes placed in the rectum and urethra

cystoscopy ( cysto)

Endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps

blood urea nitrogen ( BUN)

blood urea nitrogen ( BUN)

culture and sensitivity ( C& S)

Test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics

prostate- specific antigen ( PSA)

Blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer

semen analysis

Test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after a vasectomy

urinalysis ( UA)

Battery of tests performed on a urine specimen, including physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation

computed tomography ( CT)

Imaging technique that rotates an x- ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles


Procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter

intravenous pyelography ( IVP)

Radiographic examination of the kidneys, and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography ( EU)

kidney, ureter, bladder ( KUB) radiography

Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system

nuclear scan

Radiology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detec-tor, produces images by recording the emitted tracers

ultrasound (US)

Radiology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detec-tor, produces images by recording the emitted tracers

voiding cystourethrography ( VCUG)

Radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging


Method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body


Removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution


Fixation of a floating or mobile kidney


Removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy

transurethral resection of the prostate ( TURP)

Surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to " chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flush-ing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evi-dence of cancer


Incision of a urethral stricture


Excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens

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