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88 terms

Medical Terminology Chap 11

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electrolytes
Mineral salts that become electrically charged when in solution
filtrate
Fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli of the kidney. Filtrate is similar to plasma but with far less protein. Urine is formed from f iltrate.
nitrogenous wastes
Products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen. Filtrate is similar to plasma but with far less protein. Urine is formed from f iltrate.
peristaltic waves
Sequence of rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
peritoneum
Serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
plasma
Liquid portion of blood, composed primarily of water ( 90%), and contain-ing dissolved proteins, nutrients, lipids, and various waste products
semen
Fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
testosterone
Androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate. Testosterone is also responsible for the development of secondary sex characteris-tics ( musculature, hair patterns, thickened vocal cords, and so forth).
cyst/ o vesic/ o
bladder cyst/ o/ scope: instrument for examining the bladder - scope: instrument for examining
glomerul/ o
glomerulus
lith/ o
stone
meat/ o
opening, meatus
nephr/ o ren/ o
kidney
pyel/ o
renal pelvis
ur/ o -uria
urine, urinary tract
andr/ o
male
balan/ o
glans penis
epididym/ o
epididymis
orch/ o orchi/ o orchid/ o test/ o
testis (plural: testes)
perine/ o
perineum ( area between scro-tum [ or vulva in the female] and anus)
spermat/ o sperm/ o
spermatozoa, sperm cells
varic/ o
dialated vein
vas/ o
vessel; vas deferens; duct
vesicul/ o
seminal vesicle
albumin/ o
albumin, protein
azot/ o
nitrogenous compounds
bacteri/ o
bacteria ( singu-lar, bacterium)
crypt/ o
hidden
gonad/ o
gonads, sex glands
kal/ i
potassium ( an electrolyte)
keton/ o
ketone bodies (acids and ace-tones)
noct/ o
night
olig/ o
scanty
py/ o
pus
-cide
killing
-genesis
forming, producing, origin
-iasis
abnormal condition (produced by some-thing specified)
-ism
condition
spadias
slit, fissure
dia
through, across
anuria
Absence of urine production or urinary output
azotemia
Retention of excessive amounts of nitrogenous compounds ( urea, creati-nine, and uric acid) in the blood; also called uremia
bladder neck obstruction ( BNO)
Blockage at base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from pass-ing into the urethra
chronic renal failure
Renal failure that occurs over a period of years, in which the kidneys lose their ability to maintain volume and composition of body fluids with nor-mal dietary intake
dysuria
Painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a " burning sensa-tion" while urinating
end- stage renal disease ( ESRD)
Condition in which kidney function is permanently lost
enuresis
Involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence
fistula
Abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
frequency
Voiding urine at frequent intervals
hesitancy
Involuntary delay in initiating urination
hydronephrosis
Abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract
nephrotic syndrome
Loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin by way of urine due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
nocturia
Excessive or frequent urination after going to bed
oliguria
Diminished capacity to form and pass urine, resulting in inefficient excre-tion of the end products of metabolism
polycystic kidney disease ( PKD)
Inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
vesicoureteral reflux ( VUR)
Disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
Wilms tumor
Rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
anorchidism
Congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia or anorchism
aspermia
Failure to form or ejaculate semen
balanitis
Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis
epispadias
Malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
erectile dysfunction ( ED)
Repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
hydrocele
Accumulation of serous fluid in a saclike cavity, especially the testes and associated structures
hypospadias
Developmental anomaly in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or, in extreme cases, on the perineum
phimosis
Stenosis or narrowing of preputial orifice so that the foreskin cannot be retracted over the glans penis
varicocele
Swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord
digital rectal examination ( DRE)
Screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or abnormal-ly firm areas that might indicate cancer
electromyography ( EMG)
Measures the contraction of muscles that control urination using elec-trodes placed in the rectum and urethra
cystoscopy ( cysto)
Endoscopy of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths, and removal of polyps
blood urea nitrogen ( BUN)
blood urea nitrogen ( BUN)
culture and sensitivity ( C& S)
Test that determines the causative organism of a disease and how the organism responds to various antibiotics
prostate- specific antigen ( PSA)
Blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostatic cancer
semen analysis
Test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after a vasectomy
urinalysis ( UA)
Battery of tests performed on a urine specimen, including physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
computed tomography ( CT)
Imaging technique that rotates an x- ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
cystometrography
Procedure that assesses volume and pressure in the bladder at various stages of filling using saline and a contrast medium introduced into the bladder through a catheter
intravenous pyelography ( IVP)
Radiographic examination of the kidneys, and urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography ( EU)
kidney, ureter, bladder ( KUB) radiography
Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, and shape of the kidneys in relationship to other organs in the abdominopelvic cavity and to identify abnormalities of the urinary system
nuclear scan
Radiology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detec-tor, produces images by recording the emitted tracers
ultrasound (US)
Radiology test in which radioactive materials called tracers are introduced into the patient and a specialized camera, which acts as a radiation detec-tor, produces images by recording the emitted tracers
voiding cystourethrography ( VCUG)
Radiological examination of the bladder and urethra performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
hemodialysis
Method of removing waste substances from the blood by shunting it from the body, passing it through an artificial kidney machine where it is filtered, and then returning the dialyzed blood to the patient's body
peritoneal
Removal of toxic substances from the body by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
nephropexy
Fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
orchidectomy
Removal of one or both testes; also called orchiectomy
transurethral resection of the prostate ( TURP)
Surgical procedure that involves inserting a resectoscope into the urethra to " chip away" at the prostate gland to remove the obstruction and flush-ing out the chips and sending them for analysis to detect possible evi-dence of cancer
urethrotomy
Incision of a urethral stricture
vasectomy
Excision of all or a segment of the vas deferens