Reform and Expansion of Xianity Midterm2
Terms in this set (29)
Bonaventure (1221-74) was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian who was a member of the Franciscan Order. He is well known for his biography of St. Francis of Assisi. Bonaventure used the life of St. Francis to portray his views on the ideal Christian life, namely one in which the Christian passionately sought to be entirely conformed to the image of Christ.
A religious leader, in the late 12th century and early 13th century, who received authority from a local bishop to preach to the Cathars. His followers and himself lived of extreme poverty to convince medieval society that the Church was a worthy vehicle of love and God's truth. This was a way to sort of "out do" the Cathar movement. Although Dominic's efforts were relatively insignificant amidst the Albigensian Crusade, his intense loyalty to the Pope influenced Pope Honorius III to call Dominic's organization an Order of Preachers; this was to become the more familiar Dominican Order.
Fourth Lateran Council
In 1215, Pope Innocent III called a council in Lateran Palace to ensure uniformity within the Church due to the rise of different sects including the Franciscans. Council ordered all Christians to receive the Eucharist at least once year and prepare for confession. The Fourth Lateran Council also explained the Eucharistic transformation in terms of transubstantiation: the idea that that Eucharistic elements transform into the body of Christ in substance, though not in "spatial dimension" (as Aquinas puts it). This Council also banned the formation of new sects.
He reigned as Pope between the years of 1198-1216 where he continually used the central authority of the papacy to draw practical lessons for everyday life and the organization of society from the Bible. In 1215, this Pope called the Fourth Lateran Council. During his time as Pope, he spent much of his energy in confronting secular rules who undermined his power. He also rallied noblemen and the King of France to attack the Cathars; organized the 4th crusade against Constantinople (1203)
St. Francis was brought up in the late 12th c. in Assisi in a wealthy home. In his twenties he decided to undertake a divine mission to "turn upside down" the obsession of the world: wealth. Francis is the first person known to have suffered stigmata. He became a wandering preacher and an advocate of the poor. An order was created by his followers named the Franciscan Order. These followers did not own any personal possessions; their monasteries were owned by the Church.
Life of St. Francis
Bonaventure emphasizes many characteristics repeatedly in Life of Saint Francis such as humility and poverty, he is extremely pious, and ultimately, Francis looks so much like Jesus in his life that for the last two years of his life, he bears the marks of Christ's crucifixion (the stigmata). There is also an emphasis on Francis' decision to travel around preaching (like Christ) rather than being in a monastery for the benefit of others. He is also known for talking to birds (and the birds listening to him). He is not a Cathar, as Bonaventure makes this clear because he does not reject the world (he loves nature) but does reject poverty, etc. He is not against the Pope (he repairs St. Peter's church).
used to be that Popes were appointed by secular rulers, as Leo was appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor. He called a council of the cardinal bishops together and made it so that the Pope was appointed by the Council of Bishops--this was first inaugurated in 1059.
Order of Friars Minor
First sanctioned by Innocent III, this order of friars (brothers) adhered to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of St. Francis of Assisi. This sect strictly upheld the principles and ideology of the Catholic Church. However, the monks have almost no possession of their own and live a very austere life.
- in Latin, contains Eucharist, usually you attend mass at the parish that is closest to you (the local parish), You are supposed to go every week to Mass in order to receive communion weekly.
Rules of St. Francis
Rules about poverty; state that the order as a whole must be impoverished (i.e. not own property), in addition to the vows of poverty taken by the monks themselves. Their principle goal/job was preaching.
An intellectual movement fueled by the rediscovery of Greek philosophical writings, especially Aristotle. Scholastic theologians believed that logical reasoning could elucidate truth about God, and that philosophy was essential to understanding divinity. Some important scholastic theologians include Peter Abelard and Thomas Aquinas. The scholastic method used disputations to arrive at logical conclusions about the nature of the divine; this system made some other theologians uncomfortable because it seemed to undermine pure faith.
The stigmata are the wounds of Christ (piercings in his hands and feet and a wound in his side) that St. francis is said to have received towards the end of his life. These marks signify Francis' complete conformity to Christ.
Written by Thomas Aquinas meaning the sum of total theology dealing with the most abstract questions of being and nature of God (Eucharist and transubstantiation, incarnation's necessity, hierarchy of knowledge, and relationship of philosophy to faith)
(1224-1274) Theologian, Dominican, taught at U of Paris, theology and philosophy complement each other, wrote Summa Contra Gentiles (argued that Christianity aligned with Aristotelian philosophy), Summa Theologiae, Aristotle's analysis helped illustrate the truths of faith
Barlaam of Calabria
1290-1348; He was an orthodox monk that was not against the practices of Hesychasm (emphasis on the Transfiguration of Jesus story in the East), but saw that there were risks involved. He disagreed with Gregory Palamas that that God can actually be seen with bodily eyes. He was very knowledgeable of western theology and for this reason was asked to help with negotiations with papal delegates. Ultimately, he ends up in exile as a convert to Western Latin Catholicism.
At the councils held in the Italian cities of Ferrara and Florence, Bessarion supported union, which was unacceptable to others in the Byzantine church. Bishop of Nicaea who led the easter delegation at the Council of Florence from 1431-1439; Goal was to facilitate compromise aimed at reuniting the eastern and western churches; Thought that tradition had been living and had been changing so could change the creed now (opposite view of Mark Eugenicus), changed from 325 to 381 (This view was victorious)
1348 (begins--several subsequent outbreaks years later); This plague was spread mainly by fleas on rats coming first from Northern Italy. Approximately 40-50% of people died; religious figures in particular died quickly because of their outreach ministries to the sick. Many Christians believed that this plague was punishment from God and there was violence against Jews (Jews were used as scapegoats frequently because of their supposed fault for Jesus' death). Some people viewed this time as a time of suffering for Christ. Because of so much death, there was a preoccupation with the after life leading to the significant emergence of indulgences and the concept of purgatory--indulgences to purchase shorter time in purgatory (time spent between death and getting into heaven) for self and for relatives.
Council of Florence
1430s; The main issue at hand for this council was the debate over what exactly God is and defining him within the limits of monotheism--particularly pertaining to filioque ("and from the son"). There was a specific debate between Eugenicus and Bassarion dealing with the issue: Eugenicus maintained that the doctrine was previously agreed upon not to be changed further, even if it were lacking newfound truths. He also had issues with Bassarion's sources for his argument. Bassarion believed in the importance of truth and argued that it would be wrong not to include new truths in the doctrine and that the doctrine had in fact been changed before, so why can it not be expanded now? This council ended with the Formula of Reunion that included allowing either leavened or unleavened bread for the Eucharist, the papacy was still superior, and Rome was still the most important city followed by Constantinople. This council reconciled the Papacy and Orthodox churches.
The Christian ceremony apart of Mass (liturgy) commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed. It is another name for the Holy Communion and is a giving of thanks to the Lord. Catholic theologians believe eucharistic elements continue to manifest all the physical properties of bread and wine (accident), but what they are has been completely changed and have become the literal body and blood Jesus (substance). Catholics also believe in eating unleavened bread, which contains no yeast and thus doesn't rise. As a result, it can be placed in the mouth and handled without crumbs falling, which would create the issue of what to do with it if it really is the body and blood of Christ. Greeks, on the other hand, believe in eating leavened bread.
Latin for "and from the Son." In 324 the Council of Nicea sought to explain the nature of God and implied that Jesus was of one substance of the Father which would enable Christians to worship Christ although he was different from God. The filioque did not appear in the creed until the 6th century. It was seen as heretical by the East because the Greeks believed it created a hierarchical relationship between the Holy Trinity where the Father is superior to the Son and the Son is superior to the Spirit. It was supported in the West because westerners believe that it finally established a definition of the trinity as one substance.
Formula of Reunion
This was the agreement signed by the Pope and the Emperor (Eastern) to certify the reunion of the Western and Eastern Church. All the Greek bishops signed it except Eugenicus. The formula claimed that the underlying beliefs of both sides were the same. The formula addressed that: 1. the Father is the origin of the Godhead, 2. Purgatory is real, 3. the Papacy is over the whole world, and 4. leavened or unleavened bread could be used in the Eucharist. The formula was very unpopular in the East and fizzled. (the Eastern Patriarch was just a bishop, not a Pope)
Palamas was born in 1296 in Constantinople and joined monasticism at age 20. At Mt. Pathos, he practiced Hesychasm. Palamas was a major proponent of Hesychasm, saying that it was a way to know God (said God wants to be known), and through it you could see God as light. He made a distinction between essence (cannot be known...[like light]) and energy (can be perceived...[like rays of light]). Palamas defended Hesychasm against Barlaam of Calabria. In addition, Palamas said philosophy was dangerous (like a snake) and Greek wisdom was "demonic". God's legitimate essence is unknowable but he chooses to reveal himself in these energies, like light being an actual part of God's being.
Done primarily in Eastern Church, it was silent prayer that joined mind and heart to align consciousness with the divine; accomplished by certain breathing and way of saying a phrase; then could see a bright light (said to be revelation of God like on Mt. of Transfiguration) As the monk became habituated to this way, would become purified and inspired with a transformation of divine light—inspired by the story of Jesus going up onto the mountain and being transformed in light before the eyes of his disciples
Indulgences were issued by the Pope during the middle ages. There was a belief that an indulgence could take time off of purgatory. There were partial or plenary indulgences. Partial only took some time off of purgatory, whereas plenary could ensure that a Christian could go straight to Heaven and skip purgatory entirely. Though a plenary indulgence did not remit any sins you might commit after receiving it. This began as a measure to help individuals, but was expanded so that you could receive indulgences on behalf of loved ones (alive or deceased) to diminish their time in purgatory
-pope elected by cardinals in Rome as an attempt at unification,
-Benedict XIII and Gregory the XII already claim the position of pope, no support from Naples who kicks out John XXIII and returns Gregory to the papacy
-Later resigns to join the council of cardinals
Was the only Greek theologian who did not sign the Formula of Reunion in 1439. Also, in the debate with Bessarion regarding the origin of the Holy Spirit, Eugenicus believed that it was heretical to think that the Spirit proceeded from Jesus. He believed that both Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit proceeded from God the Father. Argued that since the creed/doctrine had not been changed and the creed specifically stated from the last Ecumenical Council (431) that it should not be changed, even in the presence of proven truth
Intermediary state of purification after death. Meant to "cleanse" one's soul, it originated from the early Christian belief that life means to be educational, and to restore humanity back to the Pre-Fall of Man. Idea was: Why should the period of education end at death? It faced a lot of controversy since later reformers claimed its foundation cannot be found in the Bible
1012-1048, Three successive popes from same Tusculum family (Benedict VII, John XIX, Benedict IX). They were three sons of a wealthy landowner who bought their positions as bishops of Rome, and hence became popes of the Catholic Church. Exposed corruption of the Church: simony--buying of Church office
Pope Clement VI's papal bull (1343) which lay the foundation for indulgences. It outlines Christ's infinite merit he gave to humanity. In Unigenitus, Clement VI says that authority to dispense this great treasure has been entrusted to Peter, who bears the keys of heaven, as God's representative on Earth.