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WHII SOL People Review

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German (Holy Roman Empire) - developed laws of planetary motion - he used math and proved that the earth and the other planets are constantly in motion around the sun in elliptical orbits
Polish - first person to state that the earth went around the sun - kept ideas to himself b/c he feared the church. his theory is called HELIOCENTRIC.
English - discovered that blood circulates through the body
Italian - used telescope to prove Copernicus right - Catholic Church declared him a heretic
English - developed calculus and the laws of gravity
French - writer who believed in freedom of speech, religion, and press - he criticized the church and gov't. separation of church and state.
Austrian - great composer - began composing at age 5
English - used natural law to argue that man should be sovereign (rule). Monarchs aren't chosen by God. Man has rights and is generally reasonable - said man can break his contract with gov't if gov't is bad - wrote Two Treatises on Government - people can be trusted to govern themselves - democracy
French - wrote Spirit of the Laws - believed that gov't should have separation of powers
also wrote Social Contract with the idea that gov't is a contract between rulers and people - gov't should reflect what the people want
English - used natural law to say that people need an absolute monarch because they are naturally selfish - wrote Leviathan - without absolute monarch there will be chaos
Absolute monarch of France - known as the Sun King b/c he brought a great culture to France - also caused problems by only taxing the poor and by doing away with the Edict of Nantes - built palace of Versailles as a symbol of his royal power
An absolute ruler of Russia - made Russia more like the Western Europe. ex. made men in Moscow shave their beards.
American - wrote Declaration of Independence - said natural law makes all people equal
French - enlightened painter, painted Liberty Leading the People - also painted nature scenes
Spanish novelist. wrote Don Quixote
English King 1625-1649. After ignoring Parliament's Petition of Right, Tried to rule England as absolute monarch, but made Parliament (controlled by Puritans) very mad by infringing on people's rights. He is defeated in Puritan Rev. by Parliament and beheaded in 1649.
Military leader of Parliamentary forces against Charles I (Roundheads); Executes Charles I in 1649 and then rules England for 10 years as a dictator.
Restored as English King after Cromwell's death; ruled 1660-1685; signed Habeas Corpus Act (James II ignored it)
The new rulers of England after the Glorious Revolution. they had less power than Parliament.
Weak ruler. was beheaded by the Third Estate.
Became the military dictator of France at the end of the French Revolution. took over all of Europe. spread his law code everywhere. the rest of Europe rose up and defeated him.
Haitian former slave who started a revolt against the French in Haiti. The rebel Haitians defeated the French and in 1804 Haiti proclaimed its independence.
Father of Mexican independence.
Called the "Liberator," he devoted his life to freedom for Latin America from Spain. By 1826, Bolivar had helped all South America achieve freedom.
Used guerrilla warfare to conquer the southern part of Italy. He then united the south with the north (which was already under the control of Victor Emmanuel & his advisor Count Cavour). He was a nationalist who wanted Italians to have a strong country.
Advisor to King Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia. he worked to unify the northern part of Italy.
Prime Minister of Prussia. believed in realpolitik. fought wars to take over other German states. (ex. Franco-Prussian war against France) united them together into Germany. he was a nationalist who wanted Germans to have a strong country.
Invented cotton gin to clean cotton faster. made need for slaves grow because they needed to pick more cotton now.
Invented the steam engine. now work could be done by machines instead of human power.
Invented cheap & easy way to make steel. now machines could be made stronger and resistant to fire
Made world's first vaccination - small pox
Discovered germs/bacteria. showed that they caused disease and that they could be killed
Great composer of the Enlightenment. Barque
Renaissance artist - painted Sistine Chapel and sculpted la Pieta and David
Renaissance artist - painted Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
Northern Renaissance playwright. used history in his plays. wrote many sonnets.
Invented the printing press. helped Renaissance ideas spread
Most famous humanist - believed all people should be educated, etc - disliked corruption in Catholic Church Wrote "Praise of Folly"
Leader of the Protestant Reformation, first to ever break away from Catholic Church, German monk, founder of Lutheranism, Faith Saves People
Founder of Calvinism - God Predestines certain people to go to heaven
Broke away from the Catholic Church because it wouldn't let him get a divorce. Formed Anglican Church
Combined Catholic styles and Protestant ideas in the Anglican Church. Made Anglican church national church of all of Great Britain. Defeated Spanish Armada
Sailed for France. Explored St. Lawrence River.
Claimed Eastern Canada for France. Founded city of Montreal.
Sailed for Spain. Wanted to sail west around the world to get to Asia - landed in Caribbean - thought he was in India.
Sailed for England. First Englishman to sail around the globe.
Sailed for Spain. His crew sailed all the way around the globe
A conquistador. Conquered the Incas of Peru and created a Spanish colony
Sailed for Portugal. First to find a water route from Europe to Asia. Sailed around Africa and landed in India.
A conquistador. Conquered the Aztecs of Mexico (their leader was Montezuma) and created a Spanish colony.
Started the Jesuits - went all over the world starting Catholic schools
Ignatius of Loyola
Prince of Portugal. Brought people together to study navigation.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Muslims from Asia Minor that spread their empire into Balkan Peninsula, Middle East, and North Africa. They conquered Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul. They traded coffee & ceramics.
Ottoman Turks
Muslim rulers of N'ern India. Built Taj Mahal. Traded textiles with E'peans. Eventually England conquered them and took over India.
Mughals
Advanced Native American culture that lived on the Pacific coast in present day South America (Chili, Peru);Lived in the Andes mountains; well known for advanced road building, bridges, and potatoes. Conquered by Pizarro and virtually wiped out by 1531.
Incas
Native American tribe in Mexico that was defeated by Cortez. Well known for human sacrifices and for gold. Hated by surrounding tribes, many tribes joined Cortez in defeating this group. Most famous ruler was Montezuma.
Aztec
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
Pope
Believed in capitalism. wrote Wealth of Nations. influenced the US. wrote about laissez-faire economics - this means that gov't should not get involved with economic matters.
Believed in Socialism. Wrote Communist Manifesto (with Friedrich Engels). Wanted proletariat to rise up and revolt all over the world.
American naval commander who in 1853 sailed to Japan and forced the Japanese to sign a trade agreement with the United States. Ultimately, this meant Japan will begin to industrialize and become a world power.
Heir to throne of Austria-Hungary. assassinated by Serbian nationalist who wanted Bosnia - which was controlled by A-H - to be controlled by Serbia instead since the people in Bosnia were Serbs. This was the "spark" that started WWI.
Ruler of Russia in early 1900s. Was on the side of the Allied Powers. Spent too much time & money on WWI while his own people were starving. Lost Russo-Japanese war to Japan which was an embarrassment.
Russian socialist. Wanted to spread socialism all over the world. Led the Bolsheviks. Took over Russian gov't in a coup d'etat. Became leader of Russia. New Economic Policy - even though he was a socialist, he used capitalism to get the Russian economy back on its feet.
Radical group of Russian peasants led by Lenin. overthrew Russian gov't (coup d'etat) in 1917. socialists/communists. Wanted everything to be owned by the people. Nickname was the "Reds". after taking power they had to fight a civil war against the Mensheviks ("Whites")
Bolsheviks
Leader of Germany during WWI. Gave Austria-Hungary the "blank check" to fight Serbia - this started WWI.
US president WWI. Had plan - 14 points - for peace after the war
Totalitarian leader of Germany. Head of the Nazi Party. Rebuilt German nationalism after their WWI defeat. rebuilt German army. Fixed German economy. took away rights - especially of Jews (anti-jew = anti-Semitism). Made Germany powerful and proud. Wanted to extend its empire by taking over more of Europe.
Totalitarian leader of Italy. Head of the Fascist Party (followers called Black Shirts). Rebuilt Italian nationalism after WWI. Built Italian army. fixed Italian economy. Wanted to extend its empire by taking over Ethiopia.
Totalitarian leader of Soviet Union. head of the Communist Party. Improved Soviet economy with 5-year plans and collectivization - gov't owned all farms. Took away rights
Totalitarian leader of Japan. Head of the Japanese military. (Hirohito was the emperor but was weak) Built up Japanese nationalism. built up Japanese military. Wanted to extend its empire by taking over China, Korea, and Manchuria.
US pres. during most of WWII
US pres after FDR dies. Drops bombs on Japan
US general - led DDay invasion
US general in the Pacific. After war he rules Japan for the US & helps them create a constitution.
British Prime Minister - encourages his country to stand up to Hitler
US General - his plan helps rebuild Europe after WWII
France, US, USSR, Great Britain and other countries fighting against Axis powers
Allies
Germany, Italy, Japan and others that fought against the Allies.
Axis
Leader of Al Qaeda, lead the attacks on US on 9/11.
Leader of the Soviet Union when it collapsed, Glasnost and Perestroika
Communist leader in China
Communist leader in North Vietnam, began Vietnam War by attacking South Vietnam
Leaded non-violent protest in India, to gain independence from Great Britian
First President of Kenya, lead violent War of Independence against the French.