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Biology Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (49)
Correct sequence for AEROBIC respiration?
Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
How to show recessive phenotype?
Lower case letters (ex. bb)
Define atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
The totality of an organism's chemical reaction
What is a hypothesis?
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Define pH scale
0 = acid 14 = base
The movement of particles of any substance so that they tend to spread out into the available space
The diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane, whether artificial or cellular
The process of change that has transformed life from its beginning to the astounding array of organisms today (Fundamental principle of biology)
Define organic molecules
Are usually composed of carbon atoms in rings or long chains, to which are attached other atoms of such elements as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
A cell formed by a fertilized egg is called?
The chloroplast of plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy that is stored in sugar and other organic molecules
When does crossing over happen?
Between prophase 1 and metaphase 1 of MEOSIS
Function of ribosomes?
Make protein = repair damage, or directing chemical processes.
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Lacks a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles (bacteria)
Characteristics of an organism
1. Made up of cells
2. Uses energy
5. Responds to changing enviroments
Functions of a nucleus?
Contains genetic material in eukaryotic cells
Examples of organisms that can perform photosynthesis
Algae, plants, and certain bacteria
Products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen
Monomers of polysaccharides?
Monomers of protein
Monomers of lipids
Glycerol and fatty acid
The synthesis of RNA using information in the DNA
Cells genetically programmed to die
What are the properties of water?
1. Its attraction to polar molecules
2. High-specific heat
3. High heat of vaporization
4. The lower density of ice
5. High polarity
What are the laws of energy or thermodynamics?
Laws of energy = Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics = 1. Energy is constant
2. Energy cannot be created or destroyed
Stages of Mitosis
1. Prophase - The first and longest stage of mitosis. In this stage the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell.
2. Metaphase - Chromosomes line up in the center and spindle fibers form at their centromeres.
3. Anaphase - Sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are pulled apart.
4. Telophase - Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct rod-like shapes. Two new nuclear membranes then form around each of the two regions of DNA and the spindle fibers disappear.
Stages of Meiosis
1. Prophase I - The chromosomes condense, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. crossing-over occurs.
2. Metaphase I - Pairs of homologous chromosomes move to the equator of the cell.
3. Anaphase I - Homologous chrmosomes move to the oppisite poles of the cell.
4. Telophase I and Cytokinesis - Chromosomes gather at the poles of the cells. the cytoplasm divides.
5. Prophase II - A new spidle forms around the chromosomes.
6. Metaphase II - Chromosomes line up at the equator.
7. Anaphase II - Centromeres divides. chromatids move to the opposite poles of the cells.
8. Telophase II and Cytokinesis - A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes. the cytoplasm divides.
The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division. The DNA is unzipped and a helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds and attaches to the complementary bases.
One of the strands is oriented in the 3' to 5' direction (towards the replication fork), this is the leading strand?. The other strand is oriented in the 5' to 3' direction (away from the replication fork), this is the lagging strand?. As a result of their different orientations, the two strands are replicated differently:
What is the one gene one enzyme hypothesis?
Proposed by George Wells Beadle in the US in 1941, is the theory that each gene directly produces a single enzyme, which consequently affects an individual step in a metabolic pathway.
Define active transport mechanism
The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane in the direction opposite that of diffusion, that is, from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration. Requires the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein, using energy supplied by ATP.
Define potential energy
Energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
Characteristics of enzymes
1. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions (by lowering activation energy)
2. Are affected by pH
3. Are affected by temperature
4. Are required in minute amounts
5. Are specific
6. Some catalyst reversible reactions
7. Some require co-enzymes
Define homologous chromosomes
The two chromosomes of a pair have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
("steady state") The maintenance of internal balance
Nucleotide bases in DNA and RNA
DNA - Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine (There are two groups of bases: Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine each have a single six-member ring.)
RNA - contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'. A base is attached to the 1' position, in general, adenine, cytosine, guanine, or uracil.
Function of genetic material?
The two main functions of the genetic material in a cell, also known as DNA, are gene expression and replication. DNA accomplishes gene expression by providing the instructions necessary for cell machinery to make proteins. Replication occurs when the DNA makes a copy of itself for incorporation into a new cell.
amount of ATP produced by 1 molecule of glucose during oxidative breakdown of glucose
Why are plants green?
Cells contain chloroplasts which have the pigment chlorophyll which absorbs deep-blue and red light, so that the rest of the sunlight spectrum is being reflected
Types of RNA's and their functions?
1. mRNA - Messenger RNA: Encodes amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
2. tRNA - Transfer RNA: Brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation.
3. rRNA - Ribosomal RNA: With ribosomal proteins, makes up the ribosomes, the organelles that translate the mRNA.
4. snRNA - Small nuclear RNA: With proteins, forms complexes that are used in RNA processing in eukaryotes. (Not found in prokaryotes.)
What are complementary DNA strands?
Base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A−T). always linked by three hydrogen bonds to cytosine (G−C).
What are the two parts of a species name?
1. The genus name (also called the generic name).
2. A second word identifying the species within that genus
What is a coupling reaction?
Where two hydrocarbon fragments are coupled with the aid of a metal catalyst.
What are the energy related organelles?
chloroplasts and mitochondria.
What is the energy source for producers?
What is an isotope?
each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element.
What is a covalent and ionic bond?
1. These two opposite ions attract each other and form the ionic bond.
2. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding between two non metallic atoms which is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms and other covalent bonds.
What is the site for a Calvin Cycle reaction?
In the stroma of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms.
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