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56 terms

Prentice Hall Biology Study Guide 20-1 & 20-2

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eukaryotes that are not members of the Plant, Animal, Fungi, or Monera kingdoms.
Protists are
20,000
The kingdom Protista may include more than __________ species.
unicellular
Most, but not all, protists are ____________
nutrition
One way that Protists can be classified is how they obtain ________
Hetrotrophic
__________ animal-like protists are called protozoans
Photosynthetic
_______________ plant-like protists are called algae
decomposing, parasitic
________ and __________ protists are called molds.
zooflagellates, sarcodines, ciliates, sporozoans
What are the four phyla of animal-like protists?
locomotion
Animal-like protists are classified by their means of ____________
flagella
Animal-like protists that swim using ____________ are called zooflagellates.
long whiplike projections that allow a cell tomove.
Flagella are
one, two, many
Most zooflagellates have _______ or _______ flagella, although a few species have ________.
asexually, mitosis, cytokinesis
Most zooflagellates reproduce ___________ by _________ and ________.
sexually
Some zooflagellates may reproduce ____________.
pseudopods
Sarcodines are animal-like protists that have ____________.
cytoplasmic projections
Pseudopods are temporary ___________ ____________ used for feeding or movement
false, feet
Pseudes= ____________ poda= _________
flexible, pseudopods
Amoebas are _________, active cells with thick ____________ that extend out of the central mass of the cell.
cytoplasm
To move (amoeba) , ____________ streams into the pseudopod, and the rest of the cell follows.
amoeboid movement
The type of movement (locomotion) that an amoeba uses is called _____________ __________.
surround food and engulf it in a food vacuole
How does an amoeba feed?
a small cavity in the cytoplasm that temporarily stores food.
A food vacuole is
mitosis and cytokinesis
Amoebas reproduce by
forraminiferans, heliozoans
Other sarcodines include (2)
cilia, feeding
Ciliates use ___________ for __________ and movement.
short hairlike projections that propel a cell.
Cilia are
ciliate
One type of _________ is a paramecium.
bottle-shaped structures found just below the surface of a cell membrane that are used for defense.
Trichosists are
nuclei
Paramecia possess two types of ___________.
multiple copies of most genes that the cell needs in its day-to-day existence.
The Paramecia's macronucleus keeps
a copy of all the cell's genes.
The Paramecia's micronucleus contains
gullet
Cilia sweep food particles into the _________, an indentation in one side of the organism.
food vacuoles, lysozomes
The gullet traps food particles and then forces them into ___________ ___________ which fuse with _____________ which contain digestive enzymes.
anal pore
Once the material in the food vacuole is digested, the waste material empties through the ___________ __________.
osmosis
In fresh water, water moves into the paramecium by ________.
contractile vacuoles
Where is excesswater collected in a paramecium?
cavities in the cytoplasm that are specialized to collect water.
Contractile vacuoles are
contract, pumping
Once the contractile vacuoles are full, they __________, _________ water out of the organism.
asexually, mitosis, cytokinesis
Ciliates generally reproduce __________ by ___________ and _______________.
conjugation, genetic
When placed under stress, paramecia may engage in ______________, which allows them them to exchange ___________ material with other individuals.
parasitic
Sporozoans do not move on their own, they are ______________.
fish, birds, humans.
Sporozoans are parasites of a wide variety of organisms, including worms, _________, ________, and __________.
complex, host
Many sporozoans have __________ life cycles that involve more than one ____________.
sporozoites
Sporozoans reproduce by _________.
malaria, African sleeping sickness.
Some animal-like protists cause serious diseases, including ____________ and __________ _________ __________.
2 million
Malaria is one of the world's most serious infectious diseases, killing as many as _____________ people each year.
Plasmodium, mosquito.
The sporozoan ___________, which causes malaria, is carried by the female Anopheles _____________.
tripanosoma, fly
African sleeping sickness is caused by ___________ and transmitted by a tsetse ______.
dysentery
Amebic __________ is caused by Entamoeba.
essential
Many animal-like protists are ____________ to the living world.
symbiotically
Some animal-like protists live _____________ within the organisms.
recycle
Some animal-like protists ____________ nutrients from dead organic matter.
water, food
Some animal-like protists live in _________, where thay are eaten by tiny animals, which in turn serve as ________ for larger animals.
beneficial
Some animal-like protists are ______________ to other organisms.
Trichonymphia
The protist ___________ liveswithin the digestive sytem of termites.
cellulose
Trichonymphia breaks down ____________, allowing termites to digest wood.