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PSYC 566 - 8
Terms in this set (38)
The _________ meaning of a word is the dictionary definition of that word, whereas the _______ meaning of a word refers to the thoughts and emotions the word conjures up.
A. denotative, connotative
B. symbolic, sign
C. connotative, denotative
D. profane, vivid
According to Howard's (1997) findings,
A. Familiar phrases increase persuasion via mere exposure
B. Familiar phrases increase persuasion when we are processing centrally
C. Familiar phrases increase persuasion by distracting the audience from the message
D. Familiar phrases increase persuasion when we are processing peripherally
What variable moderates the effect of including familiar phrases (clichés) in a persuasive message, according to Howard (1997)?
A. Similarity of the cliché to the audience
B. Personal relevance of the message
C. Self-monitoring of the audience
D. Length of the message
E. None of the above
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (Sapir, 1949; Whorf, 1956) argues that
A. language shapes thought.
B. thought shapes language.
C. symbols are arbitrary
D. connotative meanings are less persuasive than denotative meanings
What did Strasser (2005) find with regards to labels and evaluations?
A. Unique names were found to be more interesting and thereby likeable
B. Common names were evaluated as "run of the mill" as less impactful
C. That labeling something with a devil term successfully deterred people from approaching it
D. That common names were evaluated more positively than uncommon ones
Instead of straightforwardly informing Cameron that he is fired, Darren explains that the company is "down-sizing" its personnel (still giving Cameron the message, just using nicer language to do it). This is an example of
A. The power of labeling.
C. Language intensity.
Saying "Fudge" rather than other, more colorful terms (i.e., profanity) is an example of
A. The power of labeling.
D. God terms.
When a politician is asked a straight-forward question (e.g., "How will you create jobs") and they answer by saying a lot of unrelated things (e.g., "I will innovate rather than exacerbate. I will lead rather than deny. I will set the foundation for the growth of industry.") that never actually address the question, they are using...
A. Intense language
D. God terms
According to Seiter, Larsen, & Skinner (1998), people with disabilities can be referred to with such terms as heroic, normal, disabled, or pathetic. Which of the following is true of using such language to seek donations for people with disabilities?
A. People who use "heroic" language are seen as more credible than people who use "disabled" language.
B. People who use "heroic" or "disabled" language are more persuasive than people who use "pathetic" language.
C. People who use "normal" language are seen as less credible but more persuasive than people who use "heroic" language.
D. People who use "heroic" language are seen as less credible but more persuasive than people who use "disabled" language.
The use of ________ is generally more effective than ______ at holding our attention, according to Childers & Houston, 1984).
A. pallid information, vivid words
B. labeling, vivid words
C. reinforcement, symbols
D. vivid words, pallid information
How did the findings of Smith & Shaffer (2000) add to our understanding of the relationship between vivid language and persuasion?
A. It demonstrated that vividness can be used most effectively by low credibility sources when they have a strong message
B. It demonstrated that vivid language must be congruent with the point of the message to be effective
C. It demonstrated that women were more persuasive than men when using vivid language
D. It demonstrated that vivid language is more effective in persuasive communications than intense language
Research on language intensity (Bowers, 1964; Bradac et al., 1979; Burgoon & Siegal, 2004; etc.) found that
A. if your audience disagrees with your message, you should speak with intensity
B. if your audience perceives you as low in credibility, you should violate their expectations by speaking with intensity
C. an audience that could be categorized as having a non-intense language style would be more persuaded by someone who speaks with great intensity
D. all of the above
E. none of the above
Which of the following theories is used to explain why people who use intense language are more persuaded by people who also use intense language?
A. Reinforcement Theory
B. Language Expectancy Theory
C. Information Processing Theory
D. Communication Accommodation Theory
Which theory states that language choices can either facilitate or inhibit persuasion, depending on whether violations of language norms are perceived positively or negatively?
A. Reinforcement theory
B. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
C. Communication Accommodation theory
D. Language Expectancy theory
Hesitations are a form of powerless language. An example of a hesitation is
A. "sort of."
B. "well, you know."
D. "isn't it?"
Hedges are a form of powerless language. An example of a hedge is
A. "sort of."
B. "well, you know."
D. "isn't it?"
"I know I am not the world's best public speaker, but..." is an example of
A. a deictic phrase.
B. polite language.
C. a disclaimer.
D. a hesitation.
Which of the following are NOT specific visual characteristics found to significantly predict a website's overall visual appeal (Lindgaard et al., 2006)?
B. Good layout-Bad layout
C. Intuitive-Not Intuitive
D. Imaginative-Not Imaginative
How fast were judgments of a website's overall visual appeal made?
A. 15 seconds
B. 50 milliseconds
C. 3 seconds
D. 5 minutes
T/F: The speed at which people make judgments of a website's overall visual appeal are made at approximately the limit of human conscious awareness.
T/F: A motivated bias (i.e., the halo effect) activates very quickly, and influences how people subsequently view and subsequently interact with a website.
This theory or model states that warm, friendly, involving behaviors are persuasive in and of themselves.
A. Communication Accommodation Theory
B. Reinforcement Theory
C. Language Expectancy Theory
D. Directs Effects Model of Immediacy
Which of the following is a common cue of immediacy?
B. Eye contact
C. Turning one's back
D. Looking down
E. None of the above
The Direct Effects Model of Immediacy argues that
A. immediacy leads to decreased persuasion.
B. immediacy leads to increased persuasion.
C. there is a curvilinear relationship between immediacy and persuasion.
D. there is no relationship between persuasion and immediacy.
Kleinke's (1980) study on eye contact at airports suggests that
A. looking at a person while making illegitimate requests increases persuasiveness.
B. looking away while making illegitimate requests increases persuasiveness.
C. eye contact when requesting money increases persuasiveness.
D. people gave out money only if requesters appeared destitute and trustworthy.
Which of the following generalizations about smiling and nodding is inaccurate?
A. Smiling and/or nodding tends to be more effective when it involves persons of unequal status.
B. Smiling and/or nodding by food servers tends to increase tips.
C. Smiling and/or nodding tends to make therapists seem more warm and friendly.
D. Smiling and/or nodding by teachers tends to increase students' attention.
According to the findings by Segrin (1993),
A. Listeners who gaze at speakers enhance similarity
B. Speakers who gaze at listeners create more distraction
C. Speakers who avert their gaze increase listener attention
D. Speakers who gaze at listeners produce more compliance
T/F: Kaplan, Greenfield, & Ware (cited in Buller & Street, 1992) found that patients were healthier in follow up visits when doctors smiled and nodded during prior visits.
__________are nonverbal movements with precise verbal meaning.
Research shows that people are more persuasive when they are pictured using
A. open body positions.
B. closed body positions.
C. rigid body positions.
D. neutral body positions.
What did the Hornick (1992) study find with regards to touching and persuasion?
A. That sexually suggestive touching was effective with male participants but not female
B. That subtle, appropriate touching lead to more positive evaluations and behavior
C. That firm touching lead to positive affective responses
D. That massage was effective for positive affective responses, but normal touching was not
Touch behavior generally increases compliance for all of the following reasons except
A. individuals augment their power through touch.
B. touching may make people feel good.
C. individuals can create more favorable impressions through touch.
D. touching is seen as a secret-cue for persuaders
Touch has been empirically shown to increase all of the following except
A. The number of people who volunteer to score papers
B. The number of people who volunteer to sign a petition
C. Return money that had been left in a telephone booth
D. Accept invitations to dance in nightclubs
E. Give telephone numbers to prospective dating partners
F. None of the above (touch has been empirically demonstrated to increase all of the above behaviors)
We are more likely to comply with a request by a person who violates our space if that person has "reward value." The theory associated with this perspective is
A. psychological reactance.
B. communication accommodation theory.
C. expectancy violations theory.
D. information processing theory.
Someone can "violate our space expectations" by standing where, according to Burgoon (1978; 1992; 1994)?
A. Closer than normal
B. Further away than normal
C. A & B
D. None of the above
What specific heuristic might explain the effect that rate of speech has on persuasiveness?
A. Slow pace = confident
B. Fast pace = knowledgeable
C. Slow pace = knowledgeable
D. Fast pace = nervous
T/F: When your audience is unmotivated or unable to process what you are saying, speaking at a fast rate is more persuasive than speaking at a slow rate.
Under what cognitive conditions would we expect the paralinguistic cues above to have the greatest influence?
A. Low motivation and ability
B. High motivation and ability
C. High need for closure
D. High need for cognition