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PSYC 566 - 9
Terms in this set (21)
According to Gass & Seiter, what is the distinction between supraliminal and subliminal primes?
A. The speed
B. Conscious awareness
C. Affective response
D. Whether prime is exactly stated or not
Research by Winkielman, et al. (2005) suggests that subliminal priming may act as a behavioral trigger, but only if...
A. the subliminal message is consciously detected.
B. there is an existing need, goal, or drive to be satisfied.
C. the participant engages in central processing after the prime.
D. the subliminal message is followed by a motivational appeal.
Images that are shown so quickly or sounds that are played so faintly that they can't be consciously registered are called
T/F: Subliminal stimuli (e.g., words, pictures) can influence people's attitudes, emotions, and/or behavior.
T/F: Research by Vokey & Read (1985) demonstrated that embedding the word "sex" into an advertisement made it more effective (e.g., persuasive) than an advertisement with nonsense syllables embedded into it.
Which of the following is TRUE of James Vicary's alleged study on subliminal persuasion, wherein he flashed "Eat popcorn" and "Drink Coca Cola" during a movie at a movie theatre?
A. Popcorn sales increased by almost 58% because of the subliminal message
B. Coca cola sales increased by 18% because of the subliminal message
C. No conclusions could be made based on Vicary's "experiment."
D. A & B
Embedding images in magazine ads appears to be ________________ as a means of influencing brand preferences.
A. highly ineffective
B. highly effective
C. moderately effective
D. moderately ineffective
Chevy uses the Bob Seager song "Like a rock..." in its truck commercials to reinforce the theme that Chevy trucks are tough. This use of music best illustrates which of the following?
A. mere exposure
B. mnemonic device
C. backward masking
What are the two specific limitations to the effectiveness of subliminal primes?
A. They require a controlled setting and they are short-lived
B. They require a pre-existing goal and they can't affect actual behavior
C. They are expensive to design and they have only shown to be effective with a few stimuli
D. There are no limitations currently
Research on the effectiveness of sub-audible messages, like the subliminal self-help tapes available for purchase, demonstrates that their powerful effects are best attributed to...
A. supraliminal persuasion
B. placebo effects
C. subliminal persuasion
D. halo effects
According to Gass & Seiter, all of the following appear to affect people's moods, with the exception of
A. background music.
B. ambient aromas.
C. supraliminal messages.
D. subaudible messages.
According to Galacian (2004), the persuasive strategy that is preferred by advertisers and marketers is
A. backward masking.
B. subliminal priming.
C. embedded images.
D. product planting.
Which of the following statements about backward-masked messages is most accurate?
A. They have no discernible effect on behavior.
B. They produce changes in mood.
C. They produce changes in behavior.
D. They produce changes in mood and behavior.
T/F: Backwards masking is an effective means of behavioral change.
T/F: Our cognitive system stores information both forwards-coded (e.g., "Psychology") and backwards-coded (e.g., "ygolohcysP"), which renders backwards masking effective.
Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) is...
A. A theory which attempts to integrate linguistics, psychology, and hypnotism in order to persuade
B. A neurocognitive theory with strong empirical and theoretical support
C. Mostly bullsh*t
D. A & C
E. All of the above
According to Gass & Seiter, Neurolinguistic Programming Theory relies
A. on a good deal of faulty sign reasoning.
B. on receiver-based dimensions of credibility.
C. on appeals to pity for messages to be effective.
D. on the degree of eye contact.
E. All of the above
The lyrics of a song are typically processed _____, while the beat is typically processed _____
A. Peripherally; centrally
B. Centrally; peripherally
C. Carefully; not at all
D. By magic; by accident
When is music the most influential on behavior and consumer decisions?
A. When consumers are motivated and able
B. When consumers are high in the need for cognitive closure
C. When consumers are not motivated and/or not able
D. When consumers are high in the need for cognition
Based on what you know about misattribution of arousal (remember our discussion of emotion earlier this semester), how might it be possible for music to lead to a misattribution of arousal?
A. If the music causes a physiological arousal, it can be misattributed to other things in the environment (i.e., products)
B. If the music causes psychological reactance, it can motivated people to attribute that feeling to other things in the environment
C. A & B
D. None of the above
Background music has been empirically shown to have an effect on all of the following except
A. task performance.
B. shopping pace.
C. wagering by gamblers.
D. type of wine bought.
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