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38 terms

drug abuse and crime

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pure food and drug act
(TR) 1906 , 1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. used to protect consumer Still in existence as the FDA.
Harrison Narcotics Act
- passed in 1914
- regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates and products from coca leaves
- societal worries that cocaine and opium led to sexual encounter, possibly interracial
- you could either purchase a tax act stamp for the drugs or it was illegal
Marijuana tax act
act modeled after the Harrison Act of 1914 that named marijuana as a narcotic and put the same controls on it as cocaine and opiates, distributors had to register and pay tax
volstead act
1919 Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
controlled substances act
CSA - 1970 - established a closed system for distribution of controlled substances;
provides for a classification of drugs based upon potential for abuse;
drugs now classified into one of five schedules. ranks between risk of abuse and importance of use
anti drug abuse act
1986, stiffened penalties for selling drugs, re-instituted mandatory minimum sentences and sentences without parole, trafficking penalties for specific amounts of drugs, first law for war on drugs
incidence
The number of new cases of a disease arising in a given period, usually a year, expressed as a proportion of the population at risk (the incidence rate).
prevalence
The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period.
continuance rates
the number and proportion of people that use the drug regularly.
Legal drugs have higher continuance rates than illegal drugs.
Highest among alcohol users.
Highest illicit drug is Marijuana.
lifecycle rate
...
consumption levels
the total volume of a given drug that is used during a given time period.
A given drug may be widely used (prevalence rate) but not necessarily heavily used (consumption level).
Legalization is more likely to influence consumption levels than prevalence rates.
Far more people drink alcohol than smoke tobacco cigarettes.
Cocaine has significantly higher prevalence rates than heroin.
routes of administration
The various ways in which a drug may be delivered to the patient; includes oral (by mouth), subcutaneous (under the skin), intravenous (within a vein), intramuscular (within a muscle), vaginal (into the vagina), rectal (into the rectum), and topical (on the surface of the skin)
dosage
the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time.
effective dose
the minimal dose of a particular drug necessary to produce the intended drug effect in a given percentage of the population
lethal dose
the amount of a drug that would be fatal in the majority of the people
therapeutic dose
drug level required for clinical treatment
acute effects of drugs
Increase feelings of energy and increase attention = sympathomimetics
chronic effects of drugs
- Tolerance to energizing effects
- Sensitization of "crash" in withdrawal (the crash is worse the more you use the drug)
- Sensitization of psychotic effects and may result in seizures
- Cardiovascular problems due to over-stimulation of sympathetic nervous system
synergism drug effects
combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone
antagonistic drug effects
drugs that counteract or neutralize each other's effect
idiosyncratic drug effects
Small percentage of responses that fall outside of the curve for effects within the normal range. Unusual and infrequent. Result from genetic variability in regards to metabolism or immunological response.
Ex. hypersensitivity
drug dependence
a physical or pyschological need for higher and higher doses of a drug
physiological dependence
A state of physical dependence on a drug caused by repeated usage that changes body chemistry
psychological dependence
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
drug tolerance
The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect
neurotransmitters
the chemicals released by neurons, which determine the rate at which other neurons fire
narcotics
drugs that relieve pain and induce sleep
ex. heroin, morphine
depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
hallucinogens
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
gateway theory
gateway drug theory is the theory that the use of less deleterious drugs may lead to a future risk of using more dangerous hard drugs and/or crime.
National Survey on Drug Use and Health
A national survey of illicit drug use among people 12 years of age and older that is conducted annually by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
Monitoring the future
An annual survey of a nationwide sample of American 8th, 10th and 12th graders known for its data on adolescent substance abuse
Uniform Crime Reports
Statistical summary of crimes reported to the police based on voluntary reports to the FBI by local, state, and federal agencies. Broken into Part I and Part II offenses
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program
a reporting system, administered by the U.S. department of justice, that identifies the presence of alcohol or illicit drugs in the systems of individuals who have been arrested for a serious offense
Drug Abuse Warning Network
reports number of drug related ER visits illicit drugs, licit drugs, perscription. Not just alcohol though.
Treatment Episode Data Set
...
5 schedule system for drugs
The drug has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs in schedule 4. The drug has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States. Abuse of the drug may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs in schedule 4.
heroin, cocaine, vicodin, valium, Motofen