38 terms

china vocab 1

here's my list of the china vocab. if something is wrong or needs to be filled in, feel free to go in and edit it.
one of the two ports of China where foreign ships could unload cargoes
when foreigners are tried in their own country's courts for a crime in a different country
to "bow low" (to a superior, emperor, ruler...); sign of inferiority
Sphere of Influence
an area in which a foreign nation has special economic privileges
Open Door Policy
the policy set up by the USA where all nations were supposed to have equal access to trade with China
Taiping Rebellion
a peasant revolution during the Qing dynasty lasting 14 years and killing over 50 million people
Boxer Rebellion
the attempt of the Fists of Righteous Harmony to expel all Chinese Christians and foreign settlers, missionaries, and business men
Revolution of 1911
The large civil war lasting from 1911-1928 at the cause of its unorganized government systems
Dr. Sun Yatsen
the temporary president of the new republic who helped organize the Guaomindang (nationalist party), supported democracy, and spoke of 'livelihood'
Chian Kai-Shek
an energetic young officer appointed by Sun Yatsen to command the nationalist army, later becoming ruler of the Nationalist party and China
The Nationalists
the people who believed in making China a unified nation and ending foreign domination
Mao Zedong
the communist leader of China in the late 1920's and 30's who rose to power through gaining the support of peasants
The Long March
the 6,000 mile march of about 90,000 communists, lasting over a year, to avoid the nationalist army; only about 7000 people survived
Japanese Invasion of China
in 1931, Japanese seized Manchuria, later followed by a full-blown war against China in 1937; the nationalists and communists worked together to defeat the Japanese
the Manchurians
List of Han Accomplishments
improved calendar, seismograph, medical colleges, advances in medical treatment, acupuncture, use of a pulse, anesthetics, agricultural flood control systems, fertilizer, drought-resistant rice, wheelbarrow, mill wheel, water clock, sundial, foot stirrup, paper
List of Mongol Accomplishments
efficient road and transport system, goods and technology like the compass, sternpost rudder, mechanical clock, gunpowder, printing
Appeal of Communism
the promise to end many years of oppression by landlords and government officials
Totalitarian State
a state where the government controls every aspect of citizens' lives through a single-party dictatorship
the industrial working class
the spread of ideas to promote a cause or damage and opposing cause
Little Red Book
"Quotations from Chairman Mao," a book that children and adults alike were taught had all the answers to China's problems
Tiananmen Square
a place where at first small student protests were allowed, but in June 1989, were banished; protesters refused to leave, and the army opened fire- several thousand people were killed or wounded; "The Beijing Massacre"
The Great Leap Forward
Mao Zedong's call upon the Chinese to make a superhuman effort to achieve modernization
Revolutionary Goals-
Collective Farms
farms that were taken over by the government, including the workers who received part of the harvest
societies of several villages, thousands of acres of land, and as many as 20,000 people living in dorms, eating in dining halls, and living government-regulated lives
Central Planning
Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong's attempt at ruling out all signs of capitalism and nationalism through Chinese youth
Deng Xiaoping
the proceeding leader of China after Mao Zedong, keeping the same main goals of helping China achieve wealth and power, but stressing economic reform instead of class struggle
The 4 Modernizations (1980's)
Deng Xiaoping's program for modernizing agriculture, expanding industry, developing science and technology, and upgrading China's defense forces
Responsibility System
the system introduced by Deng Xiaoping where each farm family was responsible for making its own living; with land leased from the government, each householder raised crops and sold a certain amount of harvest to the government at a set price; any surplus could be sold for profit on the open market
President Nixon's Visit
Nixon's visit to China that opened up trade between the two countries
Red Guards
a youth group holding mass rallies to support Mao, attacking government officials and others who did not fully support the chairman
Free Enterprise System
an economic system in which people can choose their own jobs, start private businesses, own property, and make a profit
Special Economic Zones
a place where foreign companies enjoy tax benefits and private free enterprise flourishes
Poor Human Rights Record
China's record of limited freedoms to the people