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Histology Exam 3
Terms in this set (143)
lined with respiratory mucosal membrane; warms and moistens the air using sebaceous glands; important in filtering inspired air
divides cavity into two symmetrical halves
beginning region of nasal cavity; covered with stratified squamous unkeratinized and vibrissae/fibrissae
terminal hairs in nasal cavity
lined with olfactory mucosal membrane; receptors for smell; upper part of septum; pseudostratified columnar
Where is the vestibule located?
olfactory receptor cells, sustentacular cells and basal cells
What are the cell types of the olfactory region?
stem cell to the sustentactular and olfactory receptor cells
supports the olfactory receptor cells
microvilli from these cells come up, mingle, and secrete mucous on top of the olfactory receptor cell bulb that aids in reception
olfactory receptor cells
have 8-10 nonmotile cilia on top of the olfactory knob
pseudostratified columnar ciliated
What type of epithelium runs from the bronchus down to the respiratory bronchioles?
the part of the respiratory tree that has no hyaline cartilage
Where does respiration start?
A respiratory bronchiole opens up into the _________ ________ that leads to the alveoli where respiration occurs.
type I pneumocytes, type II pneumocytes, and dust cells (alveolar macrophages)
What are the cell types found in the alveoli?
type 1 pneumocytes
basic cells that make up the alveolus
type II pneumocytes
produces anionic surfactant that is a detergent which reduces surface tension
a lung disease that causes an eznyme to reduce the elasticity of the lung by removing the elastic fibers
motile macrophages in lung that undergo phagocytosis on bacteria
ovaries, oviduct (fallopian tubes), and the uterus
What are the major organs of the female reproductive system?
labia majora, labia minora, and the clitoris
What are the external genitalia of the female reproductive system?
glands located at openning of the labia minora and secrete mucous during sexual excitement
the organ in females that has the same embryonic origin as the penis in males
the first menstrual flow
What is menarche?
depletion of ovarian follicles being produced and reduction of estrogen
What happens when women reach menopause?
extensions of the fallopian tube that aid in bringing the egg from the ovary into the fallopian tubes for fertilization
After menarche, the __________ of the _________ undergoes a repeated cycle of control every 28 days.
the outermost layer of cells (simple squamous-cuboidal) covering the ovary
the small CT investment under the germinal epithelium that encases the primordial follicles
What is the tunica albuginea?
the CT investment the surrounds and supports all developing follicles
What is the ovarian stroma?
The human female is born with _________ primordial egg cells called _________.
the glycoprotein ring around the oocyte
unilaminar primary follicle
a follicle that has one series of granulosa cells and the beginning of the zona pellucida
nursing cells inside the ovarian follicle
important in protection of growth and transport of oocyte, acrosome reaction (spermatozoa binding), sperm attraction, and blastocyst development
the CT investment surrounding the entire follicle; important in hormone secretion
theca interna and theca externa
What makes up the theca folliculi?
a follicle that has an antrum and oocyte becomes eccentric
a space within the follicle filled with fluid
What is an antrum?
What is the name given to the fluid within the antrum?
What produces the liquor folliculi?
a mature follicle with a huge antrum and eccentric oocyte in the mammalian ovary that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg
a mass of epithelial granulosa cells surrounding and nourishing the oocyte in the mature follicle
the outermost protective coat of an unfertilized egg; important in supplying the proteins essential for the growth of the oocyte
follicle that is broken down by macrophages; scars from follicles that weren't picked to be fertilized
an endocrine organ that secretes estrogen and progesterone for implantation of zygote and nourishment of developing oocyte
Where does fertilization occur?
extensions of fallopian tube that increase surface area and have two types of cells (principal cells and Peg cells)
a cell type of the folia that have cilia on apical portion that move in a metachronal wave pattern
a cell type of the folia that produces mucous to lubricate the fallopian tubes
implantation of morula into the uterine wall
What is a blastocyst?
endometrium, myometrium, and epimetrium
What are the layers of the uterus?
the innermost mucous membrane that lines the uterus; builds up during menstruation and is sloughed off if there is no fertilization; has uterine glands
the huge muscular layer of the uterus
the outer serous membrane of the uterus
How often does the surface epithelium of the vagina slough off?
ball of cells produced right after fertilization
cortex of ovary
Where do the follicles develop?
testes, epididymus, and vas deferend
What are the internal genitalia of the male reproductive system?
seminal vesicles, prostate and Cowper's gland
What are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system?
penis and scrotum
What are the external genitalia of the male reproductive system?
What is the primary male reproductive organ?
produce male sex cells (spermatozoa) and testosterone
What is the function of the testes?
stimulates male sexual organs and develops masculine extragenital sex traits
What does testosterone do in the male?
What is responsible for pre-ejaculatory fluid?
Where are the testes located?
What is the primary female reproductive organ?
convoluted seminiferous tubules in testes
Where and what produces sperm?
responsible for the production of testosterone; found in testes between seminiferous tubules
thick basement membrane enclosing seminiferous tubules
What lines the seminiferous tubules and undergoes spermatogenesis?
spermatogenic cells and sertoli cells
The two primary cell types of the germinal epithelium in the seminiferous tubules are:
process of becoming a mature sperm
What is spermiogenesis?
the ability of the sperm to acquire motility by removal of the glycoprotein coat covering acrosome
What is capacitation?
Where does capacitation occur?
the CT investment surrounding the testes
Sertoli cells secrete ________ which aids in the release of __________.
cells that form primary spermatocytes
Where is sperm stored?
principle cells and basal cells
What are the two cell types of the epididymus?
connects testes with urethra
mature sperm with a combo of secretions; some from seminiferous tubules, epididymus, prostate, seminal vesicles, and Cowper's gland
What makes up semen?
90% seminal fluid
In semen there is 10% __________ and 90% ____________.
What aids in uterine contractions?
secretes yellow viscous solution full of fructose to provide ATP to spermatozoa
What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
The urinary system is composed of:
The outer portion of the kidney is the ________ distinguished by the ____________.
excretes most waste products and foreign substances, extremely important in regulation of blood pressure, and important in regulation of extracellular fluid volume
What is the function(s) of the kidney?
has fenestrated capillaries to allow ultrafiltration of the blood
where filtrate exits Bowman's space and enters proximal convoluted tubule
where blood is entering and exiting glomerulus via arterioles
collect filtrate; major filtration center
macula densa, mesangial cells, and juxtaglomerular cells
What makes up the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?
specialized cells in wall of distal tubule that gives info to afferent arterioles
synthesize an amorphic matrix that nurses capillaries; phagocytic
regulate blood pressure and produce a hormone called renin
a hormone and acid protease causes cleavage of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
an enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
Angiotensin II is a powerful ____________.
The urinary bladder can hold up to ________ of fluid.
corpuscle's of Malpighian
another name for renal corpuscle
the process of urination
Every ____-____ seconds, 15 mL of fluid passes into bladder by ureter.
every 8-10 days
How often does the olfactory epithelium turnover?
extends from larynx to hilus and has pseudostratified columnar ciliated
What lung is larger and heavier than the other?
the CT investment around the lung
the phospholipid unwinds in monomolecular layers around the surface of the alveoli to reduce surface tension
How does the surfactant produced by the type II pneumocytes reduce tension on alveoli?
The trachea is supported by
To provide oxygen to the blood and free the body of excess carbon dioxide
What is the function of the respiratory system?
stratified squamous unkeratinized epithelium
What type of epithelium is the vestibule covered with?
Lungs and series of passages that lead to the lungs
What does the respiratory system consist of?
respiratory mucosal membrane
What is the respiratory region lined with?
What is the olfactory region lined with?
What on the sustentacular cells are responsible for mingling with the sensory cilia and secreting mucous on olfactory receptor cell that aids in the reception of odor?
the 1st cranial nerve
the olfactory nerve is also considered to be
The _____ is supported by a solid ring of hyaline cartilage
Inflammation of the visceral pleura is a medical condition known as what?
As hyaline drops out it is called
______ is where the branching from trachea to bronchi and individual lungs occurs
____ are stem cells for alveolar macrophages
Great alveolar cells
Another name for Type II pneumocytes
The most effective blood pressure drugs are the ones that affect the actions of _____
the collecting ducts and loop of henle
The medulla of the kidney is composed of
the nephron and collecting ducts
the uriniferous tubules consists of what two units
collects filtrate; major filtration center; contains glomerulus with fenestrated capillaries
What is the function of nephron
collects some water and sends filtrate out the body
what do collecting ducts do?
Long epithelial lined tube that joins with excretory ducts and is always located in the cortex
where filtrate goes into the PCT
has cup shaped thick wall around it with a parietal layer lining the capsule and fenestrated capillaries
Cells on the outside of Bowman's capsule and collectively make up the visceral layer that are crucial to the filtration process are called
the area between the glomerulus and the parietal layer where the filtrate is being pushed out into the PCT
Proximal convoluted tubule
important in retaining ions (potassium, sodium, calcium) and lined with a heavy microvillus boarder
AKA dark spot; clump of cells joining the DCT and afferent arteriole that gives info to the cells in the afferent arteriole
in the epithelium of the lungs
Where is angiotensin 1 converting enzyme made?
Drug that controls blood volume and causes and increase in urination
Drug that slows the heart rate to reduce blood pressure and can also be used for migraines
calcium channel blocker
Drug that causes the muscles to relax and therefore reduce blood pressure by blocking calcium channels
Drug that stops the function of the angiotensin converting enzyme and has the least side effects and used the most by doctors
Drug called the hammer; used when nothing else works to control blood pressure with a side effect of excess hair growth
What kind of epithelium does urinary bladder have
known as the silent killer
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