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bio questions (4)
Terms in this set (43)
Jacob and Monod
The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.
regulatory gene only
Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
lactose-utilization genes only,
regulatory gene only,
promoter and operator
regulatory proteins bind to ___________.
in the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _________.
the regulatory protein of the lac operon is a __________.22
because this mode involves modification of an already synthesized protein, it is the fastest in terms of regulating the activity of the gene product
how many types of mRNA are transcribed from the lac operon?
the AraC protein is an activator when it is bound to arabinose
under what condition is the AraC protein an activator?
a regulon is a set of many genes, scattered throughout the genome, that are regulated by a common regulatory protein, whereas an operon is a small number of genes located together that encode a single mRNA
what is the difference between a regulon and an operon?
genes in a _________ share common regulatory DNA sequences
DNA ---> RNA ---> protein
central dogma of molecular biology?
the most rapid form of regulation is the deactivation or degradation of the __________ themselves
what are essential to translation? if translation is blocked, the bacterial cell will die because it will not be able to produce proteins
__________ do not splice and cap mRNA.
loss of gene transcription
deletion of the promoter sequence would most likely result in
the ____________ enables RNA polymerase to bind and begin transcription
_________ contain the coding information for the gene product
activation of transcription
at what step in gene expression are most genes regulated most of the time?
which sequence primarily controls when gene transcription is activated?
only exons are transcribed (T/F)
both introns and exons are transcribed, but only _______ are translated
RNA polymerase attaches to
p53 normally functions as a tumor suppressor to stop the cell cycle after DNA damage occurs
why do loss of function mutations in p53 often lead to mutations in other genes?
enzyme complexes that break down protein are called _____.
regulating the transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm
the nuclear membrane's role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
what is the function of a spliceosome?
protein-phosphorylating enzymes' role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
be cut by the same restriction enzyme (doing so will result in the formation of complementary sticky ends)
in order to insert a human gene into a plasmid, both must _____
what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments?
he sticky ends on the plasmid and on the gene bind by complementary base pairing
why is it important that the restriction enzymes used to make recombinant DNA generate sticky ends?
_____ can be added to seal the nicks and recombinant DNA has now been made
if a scientist needs to put new DNA into a bacterium, she must _____ the bacterium
it uses viral RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
what is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
the human genome would likely contain many more genes
if alternative splicing did NOT occur, then ________.
transfer of bacterial genes that were predecessors to mitochondria and chloroplasts
name two examples of lateral gene transfer to eukaryotes that involve cellular organelles
duplication followed by evolutionary divergence
in nature, the major mechanism of introducing new genes into eukaryotic genomes is ________.
expressed sequence tags
bioinformatics can be used to scan for short sequences that specify known mRNAs, called
DNA electrophoresis allows determination of the number of short tandem repeats (STRs) after PCR amplification
what is the role of DNA electrophoresis in DNA fingerprinting?
high and glucose levels are low
the greatest expression of the lac operon occurs when lactose levels are _____.
high glucose concentrations prevent the transport of lactose into the cell
how does the negative control of the lac operon by glucose function through inducer exclusion?
a regulatory protein binds to DNA and shuts down transcription
in negative control, a gene is switched off when _____.
histone modifications and DNA methylation affect ________________, which can affect whether particular genes are transcribed
the number of proteins that controls transcription is much greater in __________.
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