A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the March for Jobs & Freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960s to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination (particularly in jobs) against African-Americans
Letter from Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation.
Abolished slavery. First of three "Reconstruction Amendments" passed after Civil War (1865-70) "FREE"
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws. Gave African Americans citizenship rights. "CITIZENS"
Gave African American men the right to vote "VOTE"
Gave women the right to vote
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups (minorities) in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
American Indian civil rights movement
Movement during the 1960s to gain equal rights for Native Americans - used more militant tactics to gain attention
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Led by Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
Chicano Civil Rights movement
also known as El Movimiento, is an extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment.
A nonviolent, public refusal to obey allegedly unjust laws.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed since 1875. Was hard to enforce, but was the first step in legislation for civil rights.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Most important Civil Rights legislation during the Civil Rights movement; a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Delgado v Bastrop ISD
Declared that segregation of Mexican-American children is illegal in Texas
The ending of authorized segregation, or separation by race.
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby
forced Texas to better fund schools in poor areas
ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would have required gender equality in the courts and the workplace (led by Betty Friedan). It failed to win support of the required number of states by 1982 and did not become part of the U.S. constitution.
Food Stamp Act 1964
part of President Johnson's Great Society program that provided permanent legislative authority to the Food Stamp Program.
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Racist governor of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever")
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
President Johnson's program ("War on Poverty") that called for reform program of various programs including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Hector P. Garcia
Founder of American GI Forum, Hispanic Civil rights, veteran WWII
Hernandez v. Texas
The Court ruled that Mexican Americans formed a separate class that was entitled to protection. Hernandez had the right to be tired by juries from which members of his class were not excluded.
Housing & Urban Development (HUD) Act
Part of the Johnson's Great Society program - operates home-financing and public housing programs, Enforces fair housing laws
This racist restaurant owner closed his restaurant rather than integrate.
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.
Little Rock crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress that promoted freedom and the end of job discrimination. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil Rights Leader. Born in Atlanta. Developed a non-violent approach to social change after studying others like Gandhi. Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Gave the "I have a Dream Speech" at the March of Washington
Mendez v. Westminister
Segregation of Mexican American and Mexican students in separate schools from whites was unconstitutional in California
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal "separate but equal"
required citizens of a state to pay a special tax in order to vote
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Started in Greensboro, North Carolina by four college students who sat in a dining restaurant in the white only section. They sparked a new form of resistance
Sweatt v. Painter
Sweatt was denied admittance to Texas Law School because of his race. Result: Supreme Court ruled that the school had to let him in because the separate facility for blacks was not equal..
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
This part of the Elementary and Secondary Act banned gender discrimination in educational settings. It promoted gender equity by requiring the same opportunities for women (most often in the area of sports).
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Early civil rights activist - He helped form the NAACP and wanted change immediately. He believed that blacks should have the same rights as whites.
White v. Regester
This case the Supreme Court declared the 1970 reapportionment plan (drawing the district voting lines in Texas) was unconstitutional for discrimination against racial and ethnic groups.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Ruled that Amish religion outweighed state's interest in mandating school until the age of 16, as it was a violation of the Free Exercise clause of the First amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
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