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green pigment located in chloroplasts of plants, algae and prokaryotes. helps to convert sunlight to chemical energy
pore surrounded by guard cells in epidermis of leaf. when open, CO2 enters a leaf, and water and O2 exit
fluid in chloroplast surrounding thykaloid membrane. synthesis of molecules from CO2 to water. where sugars are made during Calvin Cycle
disk shaped sac in in chloroplast. contain chlorophyll and enzymes of light reactions of photosynthesis
second of two stages of photosynthesis. cyclic series of chemical reactions that occur in stroma of a chloroplast using carbon and ATP and NADPH
first of two stages in photosynthesis. solar energy is absorbed and converted to chemical energy in form of ATP and NADPH. power Calvin Cycle
warming of atmosphere caused by CO2, CH4 and other gases that absorb infrared radiation and slow it's escape from earth's surface
allele that has noticeable effect on phenotyope of a gene when individual is heterozygous for that gene
allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when individual is heterozygous for that gene
Law of Segregation
rule of inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, each resulting gamete ending up with only one allele of each gene
Law of Independent Assortment
rule in inheritance when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently of other pairs
mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular characteristic and an individual that is homozygous recessive for same characteristic
virus that infects bacteria. used by Hershey and Chase to show that DNA is genetic material
organic monomer consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base. building block of nucleic acids
form of DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
Watson and Crick
determined structure of ACTG, the four bases for DNA. "stole" x-ray crystallography technique from Rosalind to determine double helix structure
switching from nucleotide "language" to amino acid "language." occurs in ribosome. RNA translated into protein
set of rules that dictates the correspondence between RNA codons in an mRNA molecule and amino acids in protein
specific nucleotide sequence in DNA located at the start of a gene that is the binding siet for RNA polymerase and where transcription begins
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribonucleic acid that encodes genetic info from DNA and conveys it to ribosomes, where translation occurs, creating amino acid sequences
removing of introns and joining of exons in eukaryotic DNA, forming mRNA molecul with continuous coding sequence
on tRNA molecule, specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA
bacteriophage replication cycle in which viral genome is incorporated into bacterial host chromosome as prophage
Adult Stem Cells
cell present in adult tissues that generates replacements for nondividing differentiated cells
gene whose products inhibits cell division, preventing uncontrolled cell growth
procedure that analyzes DNA fragments to determine whether they come from a specific individual
piece of DNA, usually a plasmid or viral genome, that is used to move genes from one cell to another
enzyme, essential for DNA replication, that catalyzes the covalent bonding of adjacent DNA strands
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