602 terms

FTCE Professional Education

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Constructivism
____________________________is a theory based on observation and scientific study about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.
Cognitive Process
____________________________ is more than just acquisition of knowledge and skills (abilities); __________________ also include the ability to apply new information to other settings and draw conclusions.
Cognitive Processes
__________________________ include perception, attention, language, memory, and thinking.
perception
_________________________ describes the way students use their senses to deliver signals to their brain to form insights and opinions about the world around them.
attention
_________________________refers to which stimuli students focus on.
language
_________________________ is the way in which students both receive and articulate learning concepts.
memory
________________________ refers to the way the brain categorizes new information and makes connections so that it can be retrieved at a later time.
thinking
__________________________ includes all aspects of reasoning and problem-solving.
Jerome Bruner
The three modes of representation to the field of cognitive development was contributed by ____________________.
learning through action
Jerome Bruner: The enactive stage (up to one year) is characterized by__________________________
mental pictures
Jerome Bruner: the iconic stage (one to six years) comes through________________________
learning through language
Jerome Bruner: the symbolic stage (7+) is characterized by ________________________
Albert Bandura
__________________ is a Canadian psychologist who developed the social learning theory. He believes that learning is a combination of cognition, behavior and evironment.
attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
According to Bandura, behavioral changes occur when the following four processes are present __________________
attention
Bandura: ___________________ must be given to a behavior to entice someone to copy it.
retention
Bandura: ___________________ means that it must have enough meaning to be memorable beyond immediate mimicry.
reproduction
Bandura: ___________________ requires the learner to have the skill and ability to be able to recreate the behavior.
motivation
Bandura: ___________________ relates to positive and negative reinforcement related to the behavior.
John Dewey
_______ was a pragmatic philosopher who viewed learning as a series of scientific inquiry and experimentation.
the teacher's role of understanding content knowledge/ modeling passion for learning
Dewey's approach to education balances ____________________________ and __________________________ with the child's necessity to construct knowledge using hands-on and relevant learning activities.
Jean Piaget
_____ was a Swiss psychologist who was the first to study cognition in children. He identified stages of development.
0-3 months
In normal receptive language development, at what age do babies recognize the sound of your voice?
babbling and vocal play
Between four and six months of age, what is typical expressive language characteristic of normally developing babies?
simple sentences contain subject and predicate
Wood (1976) describes six stages of syntax acquisition. Stage 3 - ages 2 -3 years:
embed word within the basic sentence
Wood (1976) describes six stages of syntax acquisition. Stage 4 - ages 2,5 to 4 years: The child begins to
differences within the same grammatical class
Wood (1976) describes six stages of syntax acquisition. Stage 5 - ages 3,5 to 7 years: The child is becoming aware of appropriate semantic functions of words and....
commands, requests and promises
Wood (1976) describes six stages of syntax acquisition. Stage 5 - about 5 to 20 years: The child begins to learn complex sentences and sentences that imply.....
birth to about 2 years, Stage 1
As with syntax, Wood (1976) outlines stages for semantic development.: the child is learning meaning while learning his first words. Sentences are one-word, but the meaning varies according to context. Therefore, "doggie" may mean, "This is my dog", or "There is a dog," etc. What age and stage?
about 2 to 8, Stage 2
As with syntax, Wood (1976) outlines stages for semantic development.: The child progresses to two-word sentences, forms longer sentences, until age 7, things are defined in terms of visible actions. The child begins to respond to prompts (pretty/flower), and at about age 8, he can respond to a prompt with an opposite (pretty/ugly). What age and stage?
begins at about 8, Stage 3
As with syntax, Wood (1976) outlines stages for semantic development.: The child's word meanings relate directly to experiences, operations and processes. Vocabulary is defined by the child's experiences, not adult's. At about 12, the child begins to give "dictionary" definitions, and the semantic level approaches that of adults. What age and stage?
birth to 3 months (expressive)
Sequence of language development: coos; gurgles; smiles; produces different cries for tiredness, hunger, pain. What age?
4-7 months (receptive)
Sequence of language development: responds to own name; distinguishes among people. What age?
4-7 months (expressive)
Sequence of language development: laughs; babbles; expresses emotion vocally. What age?
1 year-2 years (receptive)
Sequence of language development: understand growing number of words. What age?
1 year - 2 years (expressive)
Sequence of language development: talks in one- then two-word phrases; produces growing number of words. What age?
2 years - 3 years (receptive)
Sequence of language development: participates more actively in conversations. What age?
2 years - 3 years (expressive)
Sequence of language development: speaks intelligibly; expresses a range of emotions, desires, comments, questions. What age?
0-1 year
Normal development of motor abilities: begins to indicate hand preference
0-1 year
Normal development of motor abilities: loses sight of object and searches for item
0-1 year
Normal development of language abilities:babbles vowels and consonant sounds, imitates sounds
0-1 year
Normal development of language abilities: responds with vocalizations after adults
0-1 year
Normal development of language abilities: responds to words such as "hello", and "up"
4-5 years of age
Normal development of language abilities: follows several unrelated commands
Early Representational Thought
Piaget: 18-24 months, children begin representing things or events with symbols. A significant sensorimotor development is object permanence, i.e., realizing things still exist when they are out of sight.
Early Representational Thought (sensorimotor stage):
Which Piaget's stage: 18-24 months
Tertiary Circular Reactions (sensorimotor stage)
Which Piaget's stage: 12-18 months
Secondary Circular Reactions (sensorimotor stage)
Which Piaget's stage: 4-8 months
Sensorimotor stage
Piaget divided THIS stage into six substages: Reflexes (0-1 month); Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months); Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months); Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months), Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months); Early Representational Thought (18-24 months)
0-1 month
Reflexes (sensorimotor stage) What age?
1-4 months
infants find accidental actions like thumb-sucking pleasurable and then intentionally repeat them (Primary Circular Reactions of sensorimotor stage) What age?
4-8 months
Secondary Circular Reactions (Sensorimotor stage): infants intentionally repeat actions to evoke environmental effects. What age?
8-12 months
Coordination of Reactions (sensorimotor stage): children repeat actions intentionally, comprehend cause and effect and combine schemas (concepts). What age?
12-18 months
Tertiary Circular Reactions (sensorimotor stage): children experiment with trial-and-error. What age?
18-24 months
Early Representational Thought (sensorimotor stage): children begin representing things and events with symbols. A significant development is Object Permanence, i.e., realizing that thing still exist when out of sight. What age?
Primary Circular Reactions (sensorimotor stage)
Which Piaget's stage: 1-4 months
Reflexes (sensorimotor stage)
Which Piaget's stage: 0-1 month
attribution retaining
When you convince students that their failures are due to lack of effort rather than ability, you are enhancing their self-image by utilizing...
Criterion-referenced tests
This form of assessment fosters cooperation and is oriented to success.
Accountability
The process of requiring students to demonstrate that they have met specified common core standards and holding teachers responsible for students' performance is the best described as
Performance-based assessment
assessment that measures learning processes
Norm-based assessments
Assessments that give us some idea of what students need to know to achieve grade level performance are referred as
Curriculum based assessments
Assessments that are used to determine how a student is performing in or mastering the actual curriculum.
indirect instruction
inquiry learning/discovery learning is when students construct meaning on their own.
clarifying
When focusing on comprehension, if students pay close attention to whether or not the text is making sense to them, they are using the comprehension strategy know as
Treatment fidelity
the teaching practice as it was provided in research is called....
generalization
The student is able to transfer information across settings and can use the information learned. So, when a target behavior transfers across settings, persons, and materials, which stage of learning has been completed?
to practice a skill that students have already learned.
What is the purpose of using independent learning as a grouping format?
Functional behavior assessment
Data from progress monitoring should be reviewed systematically to make necessary adjustment to intervention. One process that works hand-in-hand with progress monitoring is
ecological assessment
Since the student is expressing an interest in a specific location, this assessment involves carefully examining the environment in which the activity actually occurs. What type of instructional procedures could determine successful adaptive life skills at this location for the student?
Summative assessments
The type of assessment most often used to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction is ...
Intensive, direct instruction to individual students
When teaching basic mathematics, what kind of instruction is most likely to be needed specifically for students with special needs in a general education classroom?
multilevel teaching practices
What is an effective method to teach word recognition to a class of students with many reading levels and diverse needs?
a range of grouping strategies
What is a good grouping strategies for teaching disable and diverse students using multilevel instructional techniques?
Curricular integration
Teachers who incorporate positive behavioral supports and interventions (PBSI) into their daily instruction find it very effective for teaching replacement behavior. What is the name of the technique they are practicing?
Curriculum-based assessment
Assessment that measures students' level of achievement as it relates to what is taught in the classroom, results are used to guide instruction, and it is an accurate indicator of student access to the general education curriculum.
Norm-based assessment
Assessments that give us some idea of what students need to know to achieve grade-level performance are referred to as....
pragmatics
In linguistics: it is commonly known as the speaker's intent
content-based instruction
This type of instruction involves teaching language and content simultaneously. E.g., language skills may be taught in the context of an age-appropriate theme. Themes can be relatively specific or relatively broad. the instruction is considered desirable because it promotes student interest, because it breaks down artificial barriers between content area (and between language and content) and because it reinforces learning by making connections between content areas.
task-based instruction
This type of instruction involves teaching of language by means of age appropriate tasks that require meaningful communication. E.g., language skills may be taught in the context of group activities such as the creation oof a class newspaper or website.
direct instruction
Reviewing the previous day's work, presenting new concepts or skills, providing guided student practice, providing feedback, providing independent student practice and reviewing frequently are key elements of what kind of instruction?
Interpreting the meaning of the common core standard
When working with standards, what will be your fist task?
self-management
Teaching which of the following skills requires a more active role from the students and a more collaborative role from the teachers?
can be equal to firsthand experience
Albert Bandura's research found that observation of modeling _________________
Portfolio Assessment
A collection of work produced by a student to check student effort, progress and achievement such as a list of books that the student read, a collection of tests and homework, etc.
Florida Alternative Assessment
performance-based alternative assessment of student mastery of Access Point
Summative Assessment
the process of evaluation student achievement at the end of an instructional period (a quiz administrated by the teacher at the end of an instructional unit, a student's report card, a "high stakes", state achievement test administrated at the end of the school year.
Formative Assessment
assessments are "low stakes", their main purpose is not to judge students performance but rather to monitor student progress and identify ways that instruction can be improved overall or tailored to specific students.
Ecological assessment
The goal of the assessment is to identify environments in which the student functions with greater or lesser difficulty, to understand what contributes to these differences in functioning and to draw useful implications for instructional planning.
Authentic assessment
provides descriptions of student performance on real-life tasks carried out in real world settings.
Itinerant teachers
Professional who travel between two or more school sites to provide services to students.
Porfolio Assessment
a collection of work systematically collected by a teacher to determine learning gains and current performance level.
Standardized testing
The mechanism used to ensure that students have met common core standards is...
Standardized testing
Testing that is used by school districts to ensure students have achievement progress in Common Core State Standards. The test is in the same format for all who take it. It often relies on multiple-choice questions and the testing conditions (instructions, time limits and scoring rubrics) are the same for all students (though accommodations are sometimes made for disabled students).
segregated models of instructions
In these models of instruction, emphasis is placed on the development of discrete skills. In such models. content areas such as math, science and social studies are treated separately from each other and from instruction in language.
integrated instructions
in these models of instructions, content areas overlap with each other and with language, and that language skills such as reading, writing and speaking are independent.
observational assessment
checklists, rating scales, duration records, time-sampling records and anecdotal records are examples of ....
portfolio assessment
It's a collection of work produced by a student over time. The goal of this assessment is to gauge student effort, progress and achievement through examination of many different kinds of work that student has produced in a particular class or related to a specific theme.
direct instruction
This type of instruction means explicitly introducing new words along with their definitions.
graphic organizers
______________ are visual representations of concepts and facts as well as relationships between them. They can be used to illustrate a sequence of events, to analyze cause-effect relationships, or to compare and contrast concepts, and to summarize the connections among related concepts.
metacognition
Comprehension monitoring is a form of _________, or thinking about one's own knowledge, mental capacities, and thought processes.
reciprocal teaching
This type of teaching allows students to play the role of teacher and engage them in the conscious use of 4 strategies during reading:
prediction, questioning, clarification and summarization
systematic instruction
_______________involves breaking new knowledge or skills into small elements and then presenting them to students in a sequence from simple to complex.
systematic instruction
_______________ is grounded in 5 types of activities:
-planning
-review
-presentation
-guided practice
-independent practice
independent practice
During this phase of systematic instruction, students practice without supervision from the teacher; teachers may continue to provide students with feedback but practice takes place independently.
content standards
____________ indicate what knowledge and skills students at particular grades are required to master in particular subject areas.
achievement standards
___________ indicate how students should demonstrate mastery of the knowledge and skills in the content standards,
The Next Generation Sunshine State Standards
In Florida, the content standards are known as _________________________. These standards indicate core curricular content in 8 subject areas.
classroom management
____________________ can be defined as whatever a teacher does to ensure that the classroom environment is positive and allows instructional objectives to be achieved.
classroom management
-the physical layout of the classroom,
-the types and distribution of materials,
-the allocation of time, the establishment of class rules and routines,
-the monitoring of student behavior
-the imposition of discipline
are critical to the development and maintenance of a positive _________________________
Lev Vygotsky
______ was a Russian psychologist who researched what has become social development theory. Culture and social influences determine learning.
The MKO (more knowledgeable other)/ the zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky: The two main tenets of his philosophy include____________________________ and _____________________
Lawrence Kohlberg
______ worked to further develop Piaget's ideas on moral development.
Level 1: Preconventional morality
Level 3: Postconventional morality
Lawrence Kohlberg identified the following stages of moral development:
Level 1: ___________________________
Level 2: Conventional morality
Level 3:___________________________
punishment
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 1: Preconventional morality:
Stage 1: Obedience and _________________orientation: the child behaves to keep from getting in trouble.
Individualism
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 1: Preconventional morality:
Stage 2: ____________ and exchange: There is more than one point of view and the authority is not always right.
interpersonal
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 2: Conventional morality:
Stage 3: Good ________________relationships: the child behaves to gain social acceptance.
maintaining the social order
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 2: Conventional morality:
Stage 4: ____________________________: the child behaves to feel good about his or her part to keep society running smoothly.
social contract and individual rights
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 3: Postconventional morality:
Stage 5: ____________________________: the individual understands that laws are usually in the best interest of society, but that there are times when individual circumstances create a gray area in determining what is right and what is wrong.
universal principles
Lawrence Kohlberg, Level 3: Postconventional morality:
Stage 6: ___________________: While not everyone reaches this stage, in this stage, people determine what is right and wrong based on their own moral principles. People in this stage are concerned about fitting in or about consequences to doing the right thing.
creating a social contract
Moral development in the classroom would include student participation in ________________________ that all students are expected to adhere to for the good of the classroom society as a whole.
Benjamin Bloom
_______ was an American psychologist who contributed taxonomy of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning, He proposed increasing cooperation over competition and using assessments as learning tools.
Head Start programs
Benjamin Bloom's contribution to early childhood education research led to the development of ______________________.
learning theories
____________________ have applied research to describe how genetics, development, environment, motivation, and emotions affect a student's ability to acquire and apply knowledge.
(classical) conditioning
Ivan Pavlov documented that a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a reflex response through ___________________________/
operant conditioning
__________________provides rewards or punishment as a motivation for desired performance.
intrinsic/extrinsic
Rewards and circumstances can be ______________ or ______________.
intrinsic
Using hands-on, inquiry-based, and relevant learning activities provide __________________ motivation to learn (operant conditioning).
extrinsic rewards
______________________ such as stickers, praise, and certificates of achievement, also have a place in motivating behavior but can actually reduce engagement over time.
extrinsic
If a student receives an unpleasant consequence for failure, it is negatively ________________.
intrinsic
If a student prefers not to comply with the teacher's expectations, it is negatively _____________.
schema
Most new information meshes with existing __________, or framework for understanding. They are like file folders in the brain that learners naturally sort information into.
transfer
As people progress through stages of cognitive development, they can more effectively __________, or apply, knowledge to make inferences about new thoughts and ideas.
self-efficacy
____________is when a person believes that he or she is capable of achieving a learning goal.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Keeping students within their ____________________ prevent them from feeling discouraged and giving up.
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
________ is the space between what a child can do independently and the learning goal.
scaffolding
______ is breaking the curriculum up into smaller pieces and then providing support so that students can acquire mastery.
cognitive (knowledge), social (attitude), and psychomotor (skills)
In the 1950s, Dr. Benjamin Bloom led a group of researchers who studied learning processes. His team identified three domains, or categories, of learning:______________________________
understanding, applying, evaluating
Some Dr.. Bloom's students revised the categories of the cognitive domain in the 1990s. The new categories of the cognitive domain in order simplest to most challenging, are as follows: remembering. _____________, ______________, analyzing, _______________, and creating.
guided response (imitation), complex or overt response (skilled)
Simpson's categories of the physical domain (psychomotor) in order of complexity are as follows: perception (awareness), set (readiness), __________, mechanism (proficiency), _____________, and adaptation and organization (modification and construction)
KWL
______________ charts activate prior knowledge and guide students through learning goals.
project-based learning
___________ is rooted in pragmatism and involves increasing the depth of understanding by developing real-world solution to problems.
schema
By using advanced organizers, stimulating background knowledge, and categorizing information, students are able to resolve conflicts within their _________________.
cognitive, physical, social, moral
4 domains of learning processes
motivation theory
__________ explains the driving forces behind conduct.
self-determination theory
According to _______________________ theory, everyone has a perceived locus of causality (PLOC).
intrinsic motivation
People with a higher internal PLOC are more likely to feel in control of their circumstances and are motivated by internal rewards or ________________.
extrinsic motivation
People with an external PLOC feel that outside forces are controlling their behavior and are motivated by external rewards, or __________________.
attribution theory
_______________ suggests that internal attribution, or personality flaws, are assumed when other people make mistakes. Victim-blaming occurs because people tend to view the victim as a predictable stereotype.
Cognitive dissonance theory
___________________ refers to the uneasiness that is felt when an individual has conflicting thoughts.
cognitive dissonance
To resolve ________________________, individuals will change their behavior, change their thoughts about that behavior, or justify the behavior. Creating ___________ carries with its power of persuasion. Recognizing and helping students recognize where the internal conflict is coming from will help solve it.
classic conditioning
________________involves learning a response to stimuli or the environment.
operant conditioning
______________ involves eliciting a response through rewards or punishment.
Intermittent rewards
__________________, such as preferred activities, praise, and tangible rewards, are powerful tools for modifying classroom behavior.
universal support for all students
Tier One _____________________ (tiered behavior management system)
extra small group intervention
Tier Two: ________________________ for 10-15% that are not successful with tier one support
Approximately 5%
_____________________need individual intervention in addition to teir one and two support.
proximity
________________ is one of the methods for redirecting students without interrupting the flow of the lesson when simply moving closer to the student or students who are having trouble staying focused.
nonverbal communication
______________________ includes eye contact, body language, hand signals, pointing to the assignment, and other ways of silently letting students know the expectations.
differentiation
____________________means providing curricula for students based on their individual needs, including learning styles and level.
divergent thinkers
________________ are people who think more deeply and differently from other people.
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)
__________is a student's ability to comprehend academic vocabulary in English (for English Learners).
classical conditioning
______________ is when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a reflex response through conditioning.
code-switching
___________happens when students slip into native language while speaking their second-language, or visa versa.
Edward Thorndike
________________'s research initially led to operant conditioning
section 504 of the rehabilitation act
This section provide services to all students in federally assisted programs who have physical or mental impairments that substantially limit one or more life activities.
self-determination theory
According to __________________theory, everyone has a perceived locus of causality.
self-efficacy
__________________ is when a person believes that he or she is capable of achieving a learning.
self-motovation
_________________is the drive from within that inspires a person to work toward something.
locus of causality
(1) in attribution theory, a person's perception of whether the cause of their success or failure at a task is internal (due to personal factors, such as effort and ability) or external (due to external factors, such as luck or chance);
(2) in self-determination theory, a person's perception of whether the origin of their reasons for engaging in a behavior is internal (done willingly and out of free choice) or external (done because they are compelled or required to do so, either by external pressure from others or because of self-imposed pressures).
attribution theory
The theory that tries to explain how people link actions and emotions to particular causes, both internal and external
reciprocal determinism
_________theorizes that combination of cognitive factors, the environment, and stimuli determines behavior.
vicarious learning
Among the stimuli is _____________________, which means that when learners observe the consequences and emotions of others, they learn.
constructivism
_____________ is the theory that students construct their own knowledge through learning experience.
problem-based learning
Advocates of constructivism support _____________, in which the teacher facilitates activities that present open-ended questions - inquiries - for students to solve.
discovery learning
Advocates of constructivism support _____________, in which students perform experiments or research information as a means for comprehending new concepts.
scaffolds
Teachers use ___________, or supports, within the zone of proximal development gradually move students to higher level of mastery.
behaviorism
_________________describes how the use of rewards and punishments conditions students to behave and learn.
reinforcements
Teachers use ________ to strengthen behavior based in behavioral goals.
intrinsic rewards
_______________means that learners are internally satisfied by doing work because it is interesting, challenging, or relevant, or makes them feel successful.
extrinsic rewards
_________________, or external rewards such as trinkets, praise, or recognition bestowed upon someone for doing a good job, may be used to motivate students.
scaffolding
It is part of constructivism and provides support for students at their instructional level and is gradually removed so that students can work more independently.
scope
The _________ outlines which learning objectives will be taught to students, which supporting standards need to be mastered for students to fully understand the objective, and the level of complexity that students need to attain.
sequence
The ______________ is the order in which learning objectives are taught to maximize student success. The _________ might include a suggested window of instruction and a pacing guide, as well as embedded opportunities to reteach related material.
scope
The ______ provides details that will help teachers understand how deeply students need to understand a certain concept.
sequence
the _________ provides a suggested timeline and pacing for a lesson.
affective
Dr. Benjamine Bloom outlined three domains of learning. The learning domains are cognitive, _______, and psychomotor.
cognitive
The __________ domain controls the development of intellect. The ways students process new information, store knowledge, and retrieve it to apply to new circumstances fall within this domain.
affective
The ______domain controls the development of emotions, values, and attitudes. The ways students align their priorities and form opinions about things that matter most to them are _________ domain.
psychomotor
The ______ domain controls motor skill development. Separate from simple being kinesthetic, activities within this domain are designed to specifically improve perceptual skills.
Bloom's taxonomy
_________ classifies cognitive processes from simple to abstract.
Bloom's taxonomy
The levels of _____________________:
1. remembering facts
2. applying information
3. making inferences and drawing conclusions
4. evaluating and defending opinions
5. creating unique solutions
Bloom's hierarchy
When developing objectives within the cognitive domain, teachers can use __________ of cognitive skills designed to move students to more rigorous thought process.
affective domain
The levels of _____________________:
1. awareness
2. responding
3. valuing
4. organization
5. chracterization
psychomotor
The levels of the _____________domain were not developed by Dr. Bloom, but they have been studied and outlined by three other researchers. The levels of the _________ domain:
1. observing
2. imitating
3. practicing
4. adapting
remediation
________________ is additional support provided to regular education students to bridge gaps in learning specific objectives.
enrichment
________________is the opportunity to learn objectives at a deeper level than outlined in the curriculum standards and will frequently be used when a student masters the required curriculum more quickly than others in the class.
remediation
_________________is intended to find where students are making mistakes and correct those errors so that learning can move forward.
enrichment
Higher-order thinking questions give students ____________________ without altering the structure of the assignment.
artifact
An ______________ is a genuine object or document, whereas a model is a created example.
model
An artifact s a genuine object or document, whereas a ______________________ is a created example.
manipulatives
____________, which are items that students are able to move or change during hands-on instruction, may be purchased or created by students. ________________ are especially helpful when teaching students a conceptual understanding of mathematics concepts.
integrative framework
________________ is a plan for achieving goals in all subject areas by combining content across disciplines.
interdisciplinary units
Using ___________, which are units of study in which content from all subject areas is integrated, helps students understand that the perimeter of their art project is related to the perimeter of a geometric shape, which may then be transferred to finding the perimeter of their yard when buying fencing material.
thematic units
____________________, which integrate curricula across content areas under a general theme, helps students make connections between different content areas.
physical therapist
A ____________is a certified professional who evaluates and treats mobility issues.
occupational therapist
An _________________ is a certified professional who assesses and provide treatment for the development of life skills among disabled individuals.
critical thinking
____________ is looking at evidence with deliberate and analytical thought to make inferences or draw conclusions.
creative thinking
_________________is a cognitive process, such as brainstorming, that is design to generate new thoughts, ideas, and solutions to existing problems. Students who have only been taught to recall, or retrieve, facts and information have a difficult time with critical and ______________ thinking.
problem-solving
Students should be actively engaged in ____________ using both inductive and deductive reasoning.
inductive reasoning
____________________is when students draw likely conclusions by putting together specific circumstances and applying their conclusions to general circumstances. However, _________________does not always produce an accurate result.
deductive reasoning
Students are better able to draw absolute conclusions when using _______________________. It occurs when conclusions are drawn by using known information and narrowing it to a specific circumstances. For example, if all German shepherds are dogs, and my pet Eva is a German shepherd, then ___________________________ tells me that Eva is a dog.
inductive reasoning
It is _______________________ when the results from a small sample are applied generally (not always accurate).
deductive reasoning
It is ______________ when general information is narrowly applied to a specific situation (usually accurate).
direct teaching
_______________is a form of teacher-centered instruction in which the teacher focuses on disseminating facts to students. It is viewed by most the least effective because the students are passively receiving information rather than constructing their own knowledge.
indirect teaching
A more effective teaching model is _________________. It is student-centered instruction in which the teacher facilitates opportunities for students to construct their own learning. It can be independent, experiential, or interactive.
independent learning
______________ is student-centered instruction that focuses on developing autonomy with minimal teacher support. It is an accessory, not a replacement for other types of instruction.
experiential learning
_________________ is acquiring knowledge through experiences, including hands-on learning. It is highly engaging and gives students opportunities to categorize their learning according to their schema.
interactive learning
_________________ is an approach that relies heavily on social interaction and cooperative grouping. The social experience and ability to formulate learning into words while working within a group is highly engaging for some students and tend to develop schema and commit information into long-term memory.
explicit teaching
Instructional strategies for direct instruction include ____________, which is focused and unambiguous teaching of a specific skills ot standard.
indirect instruction
Strategies for ____________________ include problem-solving, inquiry, case study, concept mapping, reading for meaning, cloze procedures.
cloze procedures
__________________ is omitting words from the text as a reading comprehension activity.
learning contract
Independent instruction can take many different forms. Some teachers develop a ___________________ with students as an agreement that defines expectations when working independently. _____________typically provide some degree of creativity on the part of the student but also keep focus on the mastery of learning objectives.
research projects
_________________ give students the opportunity to study specific concepts in depth using scientific principles for gathering information.
learning centers
The use of _________is a form of independent instruction. In ____________________, segments of the classroom are set aside for independent learning activities.
experimental instruction
__________ and virtual instruction may include field trips, experiments, games, observations, simulations or role-playing.
interactive instruction
Some modes of __________________________instruction include brainstorming, cooperative learning groups, interviews, discussions, peer practice, and debates.
brainstorming
__________________________ (as interactive instruction) involves generating ideas to a specific problem or concept. When __________________students feed off each other's ideas and make connections to learning.
peer practice
____________________ is a popular form of interactive instruction that uses social interaction among students to promote learning goals.
debates
Structured ________ are formal discussions about opposing arguments that give students insight into a subject from multiple viewpoints.
concept learning
One of the first steps in cognition is learning to classify information by topic, or ______________________.
concept learning
_________________ include categorizing, comparing and contrasting.
problem-solving
_____________________requires the ability to infer using critical thinking or reasoning skills.
synthesize
Problem-solving requires: when a child approaches a problem, he or she will need to be able ________________________, or bring together knowledge from various learning experiences to apply to a new challenge.
predict
Problem-solving requires: using transfer of background knowledge and reasoning skills, students may ______________ what will happen is a specific solution is applied.
bias
By analyzing the outcome and evaluating the process, students draw conclusions to determine whether there is any ________________ that might invalidate the objectivity before generalizing before their conclusions would apply in broader terms.
direct
Teachers provide _________________support through modeling, scaffolding, and guided practice.
indirect
Teacher provide ___________support by helping students develop self-regulation skills to monitor their progress and to take an active role in developing and assessing their learning goals.
coaching
______________provides training towards the achievement of a goal while maintaining the learner as the lead participant in the learning process.
self-regulation
_______________________helps motivate students, keeps them engaged, and build self-efficacy. There are 6 steps in ______________________:
1. learning goals
2. sub-goals
3. expectations
4.coaching
5. monitoring
6. celebrating
essential
_________________questions are typically 0pen-ended questions which begin with stems, such as "when and why would this skill be used?" or "What is the relationships between these two ideas?"
essential
Teachers can use _________________ questions to focus the learning experience.
essential
____________________questions basically put the leaning goal in a question form so that students can focus on what they need to learn during a segment of instruction.
socratic
____________________questions are used to generate discussion and help students think both critically and creatively.
socratic
____________________questions are probing questions that prompt students to critically evaluate a topic and provide clear responses that are fully developed, supported by evidence and explored from multiple points of view.
socratic
What type of question are the following questions:
1. Why do you think that?
2. What evidence from the text supports your opinion?
socratic
"Why do you think...?" questions give students the opportunity to critically evaluate the text. What type of question?
verbal prompting
__________________ is using words or beginning phonemes to assist students.
nonverbal prompting
______________________ is using gestures or other physical prompts to assist students.
sentence stems
___________________guide thinking to help students focus their communication. E.g., students may explain how they solved a math problem using the __________________"I chose XXXXXX strategy to find the solution because XXXXXX."
reflective listening
__________________________ helps students broaden their knowledge base by incorporating the thoughts and experiences of others into their schema. _____________ is hearing a speaker and then repeating back the meaning behind their words to clarify understanding,
restatement
After each speaker has an opportunity to speak, the listener will form a ____________________, in which the learner or listener repeats what has been learned using his or her own working.
diagnostic
_________________assessments determine background knowledge and skills before a learning experiece.
formative
__________________assessments provide information that guides instruction.
summative
____________________assessments evaluate what students have learned.
intelligence
_________________tests help diagnose exceptionalities.
performances
_____________________ (format) give students the opportunity to present their learning as teachers watch to assess mastery of learning goals.
observation
__________________(format) is when a teacher watches a student engaged in learning activity to find evidence of learning.
conferences
__________________(format) are meetings between the teacher and each student in which learning is orally assessed and evaluated.
portfolio
Students collect a variety of artifacts as evidence of learning to be evaluated when using __________________ assessments.
rubrics
_________________ as assessment tools are a fixed scale that measures performance with detailed descriptions of criteria that define each level of performance.
rubrics
__________________ (as assessment tools) define the expectations of an assignment, thereby clarifying the standards of quality work.
analytical checklists
______________________ (as assessment tools) outline criteria of student performance that teachers can mark as students show mastery of each required skill in standards-based education.
analytical checklists
_______________________ (as assessment tools) should be written in a language that can be easily understood by students and their parents but based on state standards.
analytical checklists
____________ (as assessment tools) answer simple the yes-or-no questions regarding whether students have accomplished the learning goals. Typically, teachers would date the ___________________ so that progression can seen over time.
anecdotal notes
_____________________ (as assessment tools) are written records of the teacher's observation of a student. Records should be specific, objective, and focused on outlined criteria.
anecdotal notes
_______________ (as assessment tools) are particularly useful for targeting remediation; however, it can be overwhelming for a teacher to attempt to observe every action of every student in this way.
scoring guides
__________________ (as assessment tools) are similar to a rubric because they outline criteria for quality work and define levels of proficiency; however, they differ from rubrics in that each criterion is weighed with a multiplier.
For example, a rubric may measure writing scores based on mechanics, word choice and organization. ____________________ may indicate that word choice is more important than mechanics, and so the score on the word choice portion of the rubric will be multiple by two.
continuum
A _________________________ (as an assessment tool) is a progression of learning.
Computer-based programs are available that adapt to a student progress and regression by providing questions slightly more difficult that the questions they just answered correctly or one slightly less complex that the question they missed.
rating scales
___________________ (as an assessment tool) are used to rate attitudes and opinions on a continuum. Typically, a __________________-will ask participants to rate an ides or an experience on a number scale or a category, such as "strongly agree", "agree", "disagree", and "strongly disagree". They can be used for self-assessment or peer assessment, or to gather student input to evaluate learning activities and overall understanding of concepts. For example, the teacher can ask students to rate the participation of their peers during a cooperative learning activity.
Lickert scale
The most commonly used rating scale is the ____________. A ___________________- should be interpreted using the mode rather than the mean and then displayed using a bar graph.
behavior scale
To gather information about challenging behaviors, a teacher can develop a _______________. To create a __________________, the teacher should clearly identify the behavior to be observed. Typically, a teacher targets between one or three behaviors. Next, a method for measuring the behavior must be developed. Is information about frequency, duration, and/or intensity going to be part of the data collected?
Next, a baseline is established by measuring the behavior before any interventions begin. From there, goals are set.
For example, if a student typically has three temper tantrums every hour, the first goal might be to reduce the number of temper tantrums to one per hour.
to grade/ less feedback
Holistic scoring is the easiest _____________ but provides ________ than other types of scoring.
feedback/ to grade
Analytical scoring provides a great deal of ____________ but is difficult to make and __________.
feedback/ to grade
Single-point scoring provides a good amount of ______ and easier to create than analytical rubrics, but they are time-consuming ____________
to mark
Analytical checklists are used ___________ whether students have mastered an objective.
proficiency
Analytical rubrics include every possible way a student could fail to meet or exceed _____________.
feedback
Analytical rubrics are detailed enough to provide __________.
to grade
Analytical rubrics are much more complicated __________ than holistic rubrics.
to create
Analytical rubrics are complicated ____________ since educators must include every possible deviation from proficiency.
content knowledge
Aptitude tests (for e.g., Cognitive Aptitude Test (CogAT) don't measure ___________ or work ethic.
formative
_______________ assessments take place throughout the learning segment so that teachers can make sound instructional decisions. Examples are anecdotal notes, observations, and pop quizzes.
summative
_____________ assessments take place after learning has occurred to evaluate the student's mastery of learning objectives. Examples: unit tests, benchmark tests, and annual state tests.
aptitude test
________________measures a person's ability to develop a particular skill.
reliability
____________means that a test or measurements can be repeated and consistently yield comparable results each time.
validity
_______ means that something measures what claims to measure (measuring or testing what it meant to measure or test).
First Amendment
The _________________guarantees freedom of religion, expression, the press and to peacefully assemble.
Section 504
____________________ of the Rehabilitation Act prohibits discrimination based on disability in any program or activity that is subsidized by federal funds, including athletics.
Title IX
_______________ of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits gender discrimination, including sexual harassment, inequality in athletic opportunity, inequality in STEM courses, and discrimination based on pregnancy.
Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FEPRA)
The _______________________________ protects the confidentiality of student education records.
10%
Up to ________________% of a work may be copied for educational purposes.
professional learning experiences
Professional learning communities (PLC) help teachers take control of their own _______________________ by meeting in small groups with common goals that are focused on student achievemnet.
much information
Students should know as ____________________about the topic as possible in advance so that their discussion are relevant and informed.
mind map
A _____________________is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of the brain. A ____________ visually represent learning for visual learners.
Essay
__________tests allow students to articulate a deeper understanding of content.
Portfolio
__________ assessments provide a holistic view of student knowledge as they may contain artifacts from a variety of learning styles.
questions
The advantage of a selected-response test is that more _____________ may be asked because each questions takes less time to answer.
law enforcement authority
If the teacher suspects a child has been abused - physically, emotionally or sexually - neglected, or abandoned by an adult, the teacher is required by law to report this suspicion and contact _______________ ( police, the abuse hotline. etc.).
to set learning goals
The primary purpose of the middle column in a KWL chart is ___________________ by finding out what students want to learn about the topic.
applied research
What kind of research is for purpose of proving a point, usually to sell a product?
action research
What kind of research is when teachers collect data to analyze their own instructional practices?
basic academic research
What kind of research is for purpose of finding out information, which is typically the goal of university researchers and professional associations?
qualitative research
What kind of research uses subjective forms of data collection, rather than number-based data, such as test scores?
META (Making Education the Answer)
The ___________________ Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that provides college scholarships and mentorship to Latino youth in Southern California with the vision of increasing the opportunities for Latinos to become successful business and community leaders.
Making Education the Answer
META stand for _____________________.
diagnostic
Informal _______________assessments include student self-assessments, anticipation guides, KWL charts, and pretests.
anticipation guides
___________________ as informal diagnostic assessments, ask students questions about the content they are going to learn to spark students interest and activate prior knowledge.
babbling stage
During which universal stage of first language acquisition do children begin to produce sounds based upon friction?
pre-speech stage
This stage is characterized by crying and cooing sounds.
babbling stage
This stage is characterized by the creation of sequence of consonant-vowel sounds that babies often repeat in lengthier spans as they learn to use their mouths to create phonemes.
one-word stage
This stage is characterized by a child's use of a single word to convey a complete idea.
early multi-word stage
This stage is characterized by the early use of grammatical elements and the repetition of longer sentences.
concept mapping
This is the practice of using graphic organizers to present thoughts or information.
Intermittent Reinforcement
In behaviorism, _______________________ is a conditioning schedule in which a reward or punishment (reinforcement) is not administered every time the desired response is performed.
scaffolding
Constructivism uses ________________ within a student's ZPD.
second-party replication of results
Which of the following contains the most accurate research
a. peer-reviewed journals
b. encyclopedias
c. second-party replication of results
d. newspapers
Essay
_________ tests may be used as a summative assessment at the end of a unit.
formative assessment
Learning logs are used as a _________________ to help teachers monitor student progress during a learning experience.
formative assessments
Anecdotal notes are _____________________ (kind of assessment) that are used to guide teachers as they support students.
formative assessments
Pop quizzes are _______________________ that occur during a learning segment.
preoperational stage
One of Piaget's stages: 2-7 years: Children have not developed the ability to perform mental operations (i.e., mentally operate information and do not understand concrete logic).
preoperational stage
One of Piaget's stages 2-7 years old. It is an egocentric stage (children cannot assume another perspective); they do not understand conservation: qualities remain constant regardless of shape or appearance.
Piaget also called this stage thinking as animism (attributing human qualities to inanimate objects; magical thinking (attributing external events to one's internal thoughts).
concrete operations stage
One of Piaget's stages: 7-11 years. Children have the ability to think logically and conduct mental operations though still having trouble with comprehending hypothetical and abstract concepts.
concrete operations stage
One of Piaget's stages: 7-11 years. Children have the ability to understand of reversibility (the actions can be reversed) and of sequence between mental categories (their pet is a poodle, a poodle is a dog, a dog is an animal).
7-11
One of Piaget's stages: Concrete Operations Stage. What age?
2-7
One of Piaget's stages: Preoperational Stage. What age?
formal operation
One of Piaget's stages: 12+ years. Children have the ability to understand and manipulate abstract concepts without needing to refer to concrete objects.
12 +
One of Piaget's stages: Formal Operation Stage. What age?
7-11/concrete operations stage
According to Piaget, at what age do children begin thinking inductively? What stage of cognitive development?
12+/formal operation stage
According to Piaget, at what age do children begin thinking deductively? What stage of cognitive development?
evaluation
Main idea # 2 (of Jerome Bruner's constructivism theory): Act of learning include 3 almost simultaneous processes:

1. acquisition - gaining new information
2. transformation - changing old information into new information
3. ______________________ - judging whether the change of information makes sense.
spiral curriculum
Main Idea #3 (of Jerome Bruner's constructivism theory) is ____________________.
imitation
Bandura's theory stresses observational learning, ________________________, and motivation.
reciprocal causation model
According to Bandura, continuous interactions between behaviors, personal factors, and the environment refer to _______________________________.
summative
__________________ assessments are used to measure student competency.
formative
___________________ assessments are used to improve instruction and give students feedback.
formative
___________________ assessments are used continuously through lesson unit.
summative
__________________assessments are used at the end of the lesson unit.
formative
_______________assessments gauge for areas of improvement.
summative
_____________________assessments gauge of progress of goals and benchmarks.
formative
_____________________assessments are used to check for student comprehension.
summative
_____________________assessments are used for grading and promotion for the next grade level.
observational assessment
Checklists, rating scales, duration records, time-sampling records and anecdotal records are examples of ____________________________.
ecological
An ________________assessment focuses on student functioning in different environments. The goal of this assessment is to identify environments in which the student functions with greater or lesser difficulty, to understand what contributes to these differences in functioning, and to draw useful implications for instructional planning.
authentic
An __________________assessment provides descriptions of student performance on real-life tasks carried out in real-world settings (or simulations of real-world settings). The goal is to determine how well a student performs when the knowledge and skills acquired in class are applied to meaningful tasks.
rubric
Authentic assessments can take on many forms. For example, students may be assessed by means of a __________, or a guide to the evaluation of student work that provides definitions of different levels of performance.
portfolio
A _______________ is a collection of work produced by a student over time. The goal of _______________ is to gauge student effect, progress, and achievement through examination of many different kinds of work that the student has produced in a particular class or related to a specific theme.
positive reinforcement
________________occurs when a behavior is followed by a desirable outcome that makes the behavior more likely to occur.
Accountability
The process of requiring students to demonstrate that they have met specified common core standards and holding teachers responsible for students' performance is the best described as ________________.
Performance-based assessment
assessment that measures learning processes
Norm-based assessments
Assessments that give us some idea of what students need to know to achieve grade level performance are referred as _____________.
Curriculum based assessments
Assessments that are used to determine how a student is performing in or mastering the actual curriculum.
Treatment fidelity
The teaching practice as it was provided in research is called ________________.
Functional behavior assessment
Data from progress monitoring should be reviewed systematically to make necessary adjustment to intervention. One process that works hand-in-hand with progress monitoring is ____________.
alphabetic principle
the understanding that letters represent sounds in systematic and predictable ways, i.e., knowledge of the relationship between spoken and written words.
sight words
high-frequency words (the, and) are automatically recognized and become part of children's growing set of _______________.
pre-alphabetic phase
children don't yet think of a word as composed of letters. such that individual letters contribute to the pronunciation of the word. What phase?
choral reading
This reading method occurs when an entire class or group of students reads together in unison, with or without the teacher. This kind of reading contributes to fluency by giving students opportunities to practice reading out loud.
comprehension monitoring
_____ refers to the reader's ongoing awareness of whether the text makes sense or not. through this type of monitoring, the reader keeps track of how well he or she understands the text, and makes notes of characteristics such as:
elements of a text that
- are inconsistent with each other, or with the reader's prior knowledge
- are unclear, ambiguous, or lacking in key information
are too difficult for the reader to understand
- represent unwarranted conclusions or unexpected events
phonics
______________teaches children letter-sound correspondence and helps them use these correspondences during the process of decoding.
guided practice
In this phase of systematic instruction, students are given the opportunity to practice, under the supervision of the teacher, what was presented to them in the demonstration phase; the teacher will provide feedback.
differentiated instruction
______________________ refers to the individualization of instruction within the general education settings. It is a student-centered approach and also applies to particular groups of students.
inter-rater reliability
________________ refers to extent to which observers agree on assessment results.
equivalent-forms reliability
______________ refers to the extent to which alternative forms of the same assessment yield the same results.
direct instruction
Reviewing the previous day's work, presenting new concepts or skills, providing guided student practice, providing feedback, providing independent student practice and reviewing frequently are key elements of what kind of instruction?
Strategic competence
it is an aspect of mathematical proficiency, an ability to formulate and conduct mathematical problems.
Interpreting the meaning of the common core standard
When working with standards, what will be your first task?
self-management
Teaching which of the following skills requires a more active role from the students and a more collaborative role from the teachers?
positive behavior support
A continuum of policies and procedures implemented throughout the school for all students is called...
10 days
The school must give an oral or written notice of charges and opportunity to respond to charges when students are suspended for more than ________.
attribution retaining
When you convince students that their failures are due to lack of effort rather than ability, you are enhancing their self-image by utilizing...
full alphabetic
In which of Ehri's (1995) phases of sight word recognition do students find it easy to differentiate among similarly spelled words like "mat", "mart", and "mate"?
alphabet knowledge
the ability to name the letters of the alphabet and recognize these letters in print
pre-alphabetic
a child can read the word "stop" on a stop sign owing to the sign;s distinctive color and shape. What is the phase of decoding skills?
consolidated-alphabetic
The child recognizes that the rime "ight", the prefix "ex", and the suffix "tion" are always pronounced the same way as in the words "light", "exit" and "nation". What phase?
graphic organizers
______________ are visual representations of concepts and facts as well as relationships between them. They can be used to illustrate a sequence of events, to analyze cause-effect relationships, or to compare and contrast concepts, and to summarize the connections among related concepts.
semantic organizer
____________ is a type of graphic organizer consisting of a central concept, to which related concepts are linked be means of branching lines.
reciprocal teaching
This type of teaching allows students to play the role of teacher and engage them in the conscious use of 4 strategies during reading:
prediction, questioning, clarification and summarization
systematic instruction
_______________ is grounded in 5 types of activities:
-planning
-review
-presentation
-guided practice
-independent practice
content standards
___________ indicate what knowledge and skills students at particular grades are required to master in particular subject areas.
achievement standards
___________ indicate how students should demonstrate mastery of the knowledge and skills in the content standards,
The Next Generation Sunshine State Standards
In Florida, the content standards are known as _________________________. These standards indicate core curricular content in 8 subject areas.
differentiated instruction
4 aspects of this instruction can be differentiated:
- content
-process
-products
-learning environment
What kind of instruction?
predictive validity
the criterion measure is administrated at some point in the future
reliability
The term is referred to the consistency of assessment results.
test-retest reliability
__________________refers to the extent in which results will be the same upon repeated administrations of the same assessment.
negative reinforcement
______________occurs when a behavior is followed by the removal of an undesirable outcome, and the removal of that outcome makes the behavior more likely to occur.
Honeymoon
STAGES OF ACCULTURATION: This stage takes place when people first arrive. It is characterized by extreme happiness, sometimes even by euphoria. This is especially prevalent with refugees who have finally arrived safely in North America. For them, their new home is truly the land of milk andhoney.
Hostility
STAGES OF ACCULTURATION: After about four to six months, reality sets in. These people know a bit about getting around and have begun learning the ropes, but this new place is not like their home: they can't get the food they are accustomed to; things don't look the same; they miss the life of their home country, the familiar places and faces and ways of doing things. Gradually they begin to feel that they hate North America and want to go back to their home country, no matter how bad
things were there. This stage is often characterized by complaining;wanting to be only with others who speak their
language; rejecting anything associated with the new culture, such as the food, the people, even the new language; feeling depressed and irritable or even angry; having headaches or feeling tired all the time
Humor
STAGES OF ACCULTURATION: Gradually, the newcomers work toward resolution of their feelings, and their sense of being torn between the new and the old. They begin to accept their new home. They begin to find friends, discover that there are good things about where they are living, and adjust to their lives by coming to terms with both the old and the new ways of living. This is a long process, fraught with feelings of great anxiety in some, because to many, accepting the new means rejecting the old.
Home
STAGES OF ACCULTURATION: Finally, the newcomers become "native" in the sense that where they live is their home and they accept that they are here to stay. This last stage may be years in coming, and for some will never take place. Thus, what is happening in students' minds and hearts as a result of the drastic changes in their lives has a direct influence on their ability to cope with life and succeed in school.
positive reinforcers
Certain consequences of action results with the increase in probability that the action will repeat again in future. These consequences are called __________________.
unconditional reinforcement
The reinforcers which are biologically important are called primary reinforcers. It is also referred as _______________________. These reinforcers occur naturally without having to make any effort and do not require any form of learning. For example: food, sleep, water, air and sex.
Secondary reinforcers
_________________ refer to stimuli which become rewarding when paired with other reinforcing stimulus. These reinforcers aren't important for survival like the primary reinforcers, but are still vital for daily living. These reinforcers are also known as Conditioned Reinforcers. For example: money, grades and praise are conditioned reinforcers.
Tangible reinforcers
food, toys, awards, stickers, etc. are example of what type of reinforcement?
Token reinforcement
"points" or things that don't have value but can add up to and/or be exchanged for something of value. What type of reinforcement?
the law of effect
Thorndike's three laws of learning: The law of _________ states that pleasant consequences lead to repetitive behavior, whereas unpleasant consequences extinguish behavior.
the law of readiness
Thorndike's three laws of learning: The law of ________ explains that learners will be resistant to learning before they are ready.
the law of exercise
Thorndike's three laws of learning: the law of ____________ states that what is practiced gets stronger, whereas what is not practiced becomes weaker.
John Watson
____________________ coined the term behaviorism.
stimuli
Behaviorism objectively measures and controls behavior in response to__________________.
fear, rage, love
Believing that the tree emotions of children (________, ____________, and _____________) could be conditioned, Watson performed what would now be considered unethical experiments to create phobias in an orphaned infants using negative stimuli for operant conditioninh.
Abraham Maslow
The Hierarchy of Needs was developed by __________.
Biological Needs
In stage one of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, physical needs for air, food, water, shelter, comfort, sex, and sleep are primary sources of motivation. What is the name of the stage?
safety needs
If all of stage one of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are met, the person will progress to stage two, which consists of the ___________________, which include security, stability, and freedom from fear.
love and belonging
The stage three of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs includes needs of ____________________ from coworkers, family, friends and romantic partners.
self-esteem needs
The 4th stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs involves ___________________ which includes success, independence, status, and respect.
self-actulization/ self-actulize
The 5th stage of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is __________________; although not everyone makes it to this level, those who ______________have realized their potential and seek fulfillment and growth.
remembering
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
define, describe, identify, know, label, list, match, name, outline, quote, recall, recognize, recite, reproduce, retrieve, select, state
understanding
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
convert, defend, distinguish, estimate, explain, extend, generalize, infer, interpret, apply, paraphrase, predict, provide examples, rewrite, summarize, translate
applying
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
change, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, manipulate, modify, operate, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, use
analyzing
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
compare, contrast, deconstruct, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, identify, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, select, separate
evaluating
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
appraise, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, critique, defend, describe, discriminate, evaluate, explain, interpret, justify, relate, summarize, support
creating
What categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy do the following verbs belong?
build, categorize, combine, compile, composes, create, design, devise, explain, generate, modify, organize, plan, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, reorganize, revise, rewrite, summarize, support
a. think-pair-share
Which of the following learning activities would be most appropriate for a student with verbal-linguistic intelligence?
a. think-pair-share
b. word maps
c. concept sorts
d. building models
verbal-linguistic
As a learning activity, think-pair-share gives ___________________ (learning style) students the opportunity to talk about their learning.
spatial-visual
As a learning activity, word maps help _______________________ (learning style) students see new concepts as pictures.
logical-mathematical thinkers
As a learning activity, concept sorts help ________________ organize information into patterns (as a learning style).
bodily-kinesthetic
As a learning activity, building models helps those with _________________________________ intelligence make connections to learning.
exit tickets
__________________ or tickets out the door offer individualized information about what students have gained from a learning experiences.
formal discussions
____________________can provide information about how much students have internalized information; however, not every student will participate with every question.
signaled responses
__________________ have each student physically engaged, but some will not attend and will mimic the answers of their peers.
scaffolded questions
____________________questions inform teachers of the level of mastery of objectives for the students who answer, but do not provide information about how each student is performing across the content.
vicarious learning
________________ is learning by watching the consequences of others as they learn.
modeling
________________is when a teacher shows students how to solve a problem.
scaffolding
___________________is providing support within the student's instructional level to move them toward mastery.
problem-based learning
Using _____________________ helps students construct their own learning
every
Migrant Education Program (MEP) currently serves migrant students in ______________ state.
high-context
______________cultures, such as those found in most of the Middle East, Asia, Africa and South America, communicate heavily through relationships, context and non-verbal cues.
low-context
______________cultures, which are typically English- and German-speaking countries, rely more on direct messages.
Sequential
_____________ cultures, such as those found in the United States, Canada and northern Europe, typically do one thing at a time and place a large amount of value in being on time and not wasting time.
synchronic
_________________cultures, such as Asia, southern Europe, South America and Mexico, put less value on being on time and are more likely multitask.
each state
______________is ultimately responsible for adopting its own curriculum standards and developing a system for accountability.
lesson objectives
Identifying the ________________ is the first step in using backward design to plan a lesson.
assessment
The second step in using backward design to plan a lesson is to determine the _____________________, or process gathering data to determine the extent to which learning goals have been met.
learning experiences
the third step in using backward design to plan a lesson is to determine _____________ that will provide students with skills they need to move toward mastery.
mapping
Schema learning is part of cognitivism in which sorting new information within the existing frameworks of the mind can be accomplished through the use of __________________ and other graphic organizers.
constructivism
The inquiry-based approach to learning is an example of ____________________.
vocal tone
In verbal communication, _______________ is a way of sounding that expresses meaning.
vocal stress
In verbal communication, _______________ is emphasizing a word or words in a sentences to express meaning.
vocal inflection
In verbal communication, _____________ is a change of pitch or tone to express meaning (e.g., "His name is John?" and "His name is John").
ticket out the door or exit ticket
_____________ or _____________ is a short summary of learning or answer to an open-ended question that students write as a part of closure for a lesson that provides insight about students' strengths and challenges regarding new learning.
think-pair-share
This method engages students by having all students think about a question related to content and then articulate their answers to a partner. When combined with active listening skills, students can learn from one another. This can be used as a formative assessment if the teacher listens to discussions and then asks partner groups to share their answers. What kind of formative assessment is this?
signaled responses
_______________ involve asking students questions and then asking them to perform a gesture to indicate their answer. Gestures can include thumbs up/thumbs down, stand up/sit down, or choosing a corner in the room to walk to depending on the answer. _________________ require everyone to engage on a physical level, however, some students will copy one another rather than think about their answer.
diagnostic
Informal_______________assessments include student self-assessments, anticipations guides, KWL charts, and pretests.
Anticipation guides
________________ (as an informal diagnostic assessment) ask students questions about the content they are about to learn to spark student interest and activate prior knowledge.
SMART goals
________________ have a specific rubric:

Specific: Involves identifying a specific area for improvement. The more specific the area, the more refined the goal can be. It makes it easier to set parameters and work towards the goal.
Measurable: Quantifying goals provides specific ways to track progress against goals. This makes it easy to benchmark performance throughout the goal period, including areas to improve.
Achievable: Setting goals that can be completed in the designated period of time. Often, these goals may act like stepping stones to help meet broader goals that further define a career.
Realistic: It is important to create goals that are within a current skill set or area of expertise. Building expertise takes time, so expecting to become an expert in a short amount of time is unrealistic. Being realistic will make it easy to be successful at attaining goals.
Time-based: Establishing time parameters around each goal as it will help increase focus and accountability.

With _______________, professionals can target their activities to ensure that they are growing into their role and able to reach future career aspirations.
achievement, aptitude, or ability
Standardized tests may be used to measure ____________, ________________. or _______________.
achievement tests
____________________ measure acquired knowledge or skills.
accountability
Formal achievement tests are used for ________________ and for college admissions.
Aptitude tests
_________________ are used to measure a person's ability to develop a particular skills if properly trained.
aptitude
Employers in technical fields use _______________ tests when choosing new hires.
ability tests
_____________ measure a person's ability to perform a particular skill without any training.
talent/ capable
Aptitude indicates natural __________ that can be developed over time, whereas ability measures how _______________ a student is to perform a skill without training.
intelligence
________________tests, such as Woodcock-Johnson, fall under the umbrella of cognitive abilities tests, which assess reasoning and comprehension skills, as well as the ability to think abstractly.
adaptive behavior scales
_____________________(as a form of assessment) are used to measure the ability of a person with an identified disability, such as mental retardation, to become self-sufficient.
action
__________research is researching the teacher's own instructional practices to improve student learning. __________research links new discoveries to existing knowledge as teachers gathers evidence to support their conclusions.
guiding question
The first step to action research is developing a _______________ that is clear and will likely yields results that can be used to develop a solution.
Reflective
__________practice is intentionally thinking about professional practices as part of one's own professional development.
reflective
Using _______________ practice enables teachers to connect the classroom to recent research.
a. observations
Which of the following reflective practices requires respect, trust and collegiality among staff to be effective?
a. observations
b. reflective journals
c. incident analysis
d. portfolios
observation
____________________ as reflective practice, is effective only if it is followed by a meaningful, professional conversation, which requires both trust and respect.
reflective journals
____________________ as reflective practice, allows teachers to reflect in writing on their own practices.
Incident analysis
____________________ as reflective practice, allows teachers to review a negative experience in a way that will help them grow personally and.or professionally.
portfolios
____________________ as reflective practice, are records of teaching practices that are built over time. They may be shared or used for personal reflection.
opt-out laws
States have the authority to develop their own _____________ as long as 95% of students take the test; therefore it is likely that severely disabled children will no longer be forced to endure annual testing.
interventions
States choose support and ________________ for schools in the bottom 5 percent with dedicated federal funds for turnaround initiatives.
Tittle II
_____________of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination based on disabilities for all public entities, including access to educational facilities.
Section 504
Under ____________________ of the Rehabilitation Act, all students with physical or mental impairment that affects one or more major life activities qualify for services.
Tittle IV
__________________of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance.
censorship
Intellectual freedom is the right to receive information from various perspective without _________________.
due process
_______________means that everyone must be treated fairly and the rights of all must be respected.
Tinker v.Des Moines
According to _________________(lawsuit), teachers and students do not lose their First Amendment rights when they come to school, but the rights to free speech is limited if it interferes with educational mission of the school.
Goss v. Lopez
_________________(lawsuit) determined that students must be given the opportunity to have an INFORMAL hearing with school administrators before a suspension from school.
formal
If a suspension is for 10 or more days, the student has a right to a _____________ hearing before an impartial body.
immediately
If the school determines that a student poses a danger to other students, he or she may be suspended ________________ with a hearing scheduled as soon as possible.
IDEA
Due process is protected under _______________ as a means of resolving conflicts between parents and the school district.
responsibility
Liability is a legal _________________.
permission
Licensing means to be given ________________ to do something, such as teach.
copyright
_____________ is the exclusive right to intellectual or creative works such as literary or musical pieces.
special education
The Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) Process is a resource to help parents and families of students who are, or may be, eligible for __________ supports and services take a more active part in planning their student's educational program.
d. legal representative of the student
Which of the following people are NOT a required member of an ARD committee?
a. general education teacher
b. a representative of the school district
c. the parent of the student
d. legal representative of the student
c. set learning goals
The teacher writes essential questions for the unit on the whiteboard. What is the primary purpose of the questions?
a. activate prior knowledge
b. assess understanding
c. set learning goals
d. develop critical thinking skills.
essential questions
________________questions help establish learning targets.
d. teacher effectiveness
Which of the following has the greatest impact on the learning environment of a middle school?
a. interdisciplinary learning
b. mentoring programs
c. parent involvement
d. teacher effectiveness
c. pacing guide
Which of the following documents is used during lesson planning to determine approximately how much time should be spent on an objective?
a. state standards
b. teacher's edition of the textbook
c. pacing guide
d. assessment calendar
pacing guides
_________________help teachers determine the order in which material should be taught and approximately how much time should be spent on each objective.
intrincically
Choices of learning activities are _________ motivating to students.
b. social learning theory
Which of the following theories would advocate explaining the instructional objectives to students?
a. constructivism
b. social learning theory
c. pragmatism
d. moral development
social learning theory
________________ involves getting students' attention, explaining the learning goals, modeling, practicing, providing feedback, practicing and then assessing.
listening
Active ___________ improves communication by ensuring that the speaker is correctly heard.
probing
_____questions help students think more deeply about what they have learned.
ability
Cognitive____________tests are used to identify exceptionalities.
achievement
______________tests would be most useful for helping a teacher make instructional decisions to support students in the classroom.
Dewey
John _____________ supported real-world experiences and developing social responsibilities.
push-in
An ESOL teacher who works within a subject classroom to provide additional support and instruction follows a _______________ model.
content knowledge
Criterion-referenced assessments are used to measure _________________.
Formative assessment
_____describes an approach to teaching and learning that measures a learner's progress during the period of time when a student working toward mastery.
formative
What makes an assessment ______________ is how and when it is used. ________________assessments are used to make decisions about what should be taught next and how it should be taught. In addition, ________assessment should be a partnership between learner and teacher, with the active imvolvement of both.
Formative assessment
__________assessment approaches provide the teacher with detailed information about what learner does, and does not know. Learners also benefit from this process, as it gives them feedback about what they are doing correctly, and where the improvement is needed.
Formative
______assessment methods can be informal, such as questions and self-assessments, or more formal, such as multi-choice items in an audience response system. What makes an assessment _____________ is in the way it is used, not the type of assessment used.
Formative
__________ assessment provides the student with information about progress toward learning goals.
Summative
_________ assessment provides the student with information about mastery of learning goals.
Formative
_________assessment informs decision-making about next step in teaching Summative
Formative
_____assessments are given during a unit of instruction.
Formative
___________ assessments have informal and formal assessment methods, including. but not limited to, benchmark assessments (format).
Summative
__________ assessment evaluates the learner's mastery of the unit objectives used for evaluation and grading (purpose for teachers).
Summative
______________assessments are given at the and of a unit of instruction.
Summative
______________ assessments can be informal and formal assessment methods of cumulative knowledge.
formative
Benefits of _______________ assessments in secondary schools for teachers:
Because the teacher gains knowledge of what students know and do not know, unnecessary teaching of learned concepts is eliminated.
This saves time for re-teaching content that has not yet been fully learned.
In addition, it gives the teacher insight into students' commonly help misconceptions.
Most importantly, ________assessment results provide the teacher with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions about teaching, grouping, and differentiated instruction.
formative
Benefits of _______________ assessments in secondary schools for students:
Research evidence of a ____________________assessment approach demonstrate impressive learning and achievement gains.
William (2007) reported that the use of ________assessment methods could increase the speed of learning by 400%, with much of the effect attributable to gains by struggling students.
formative
Benefits of _______________ assessment approach for secondary students have been documented in all content areas, including reading and math.
False:
They occur throughout the day, everyday. While a test format can be used, practices such as checking for understanding through questioning, writing, and discussion can be utilized.
True or False?
Formative assessments are test given at regular intervals.
False: They include many student-centered elements (e.g., goal-setting, self-regulation, peer response practices, and self-assessment) and shift the responsibility of learning to the learners themselves.
True or False?
Formative assessments are primary for the teacher's benefit.
False: Although products, called benchmark assessments, are often commercially produced, benchmarks can also be locally developed, even within a grade level. However, if the purpose is merely to catalog and categorize, and if no teaching decisions arise, then any commercially or teacher-created assessment ceases to be formative.
True or False?
Formative assessments are commercially prepared products.
fixed mindset / growth mindset
Over 30 years ago, Carol Dweck and her colleagues became interested in students' attitudes about failure. They noticed that some students rebounded while other students seemed devastated by even the smallest setbacks. After studying the behavior of thousands of children, Dr. Dweck coined the terms _____________ and ____________ to describe the underlying beliefs people have about learning and intelligence. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand that effort makes them stronger. Therefore they put in extra time and effort, and that leads to higher achievement.
Carol Dweck
Who coined the terms "fixed mindset and growth mindset"?
Feed up
__________describes a set of practices designed to engage the student as an active learner. Motivation lies at the heart of the _____ process, and Hattie and Timperley (2007) explain that it answers the student questions.Where am I going? These practices include establishing the purpose of learning and setting goals with student.
Feed forward
The purpose of formative assessment is to inform instruction, and without a ______ process, this crucial step is lost. The goal is to make decisions that will be applied to future instruction. Now it is time for error analysis to inform guided instruction.
robust questions
Elicitation, elaboration, clarification, divergent, heuristic, and reflective are type of _________________
Elicitation
_____________question checks previously taught information, e.g., "Why was Emily Dickinson considered to be a groundbreaking poet?"
Elaboration
_____________question asks the learner to extend comment, e.g., "Tell me more about it."
Clarification
___________ question invites the learner to provide evidence, e.g., "Can you she me where you read that?"
Divergent
____________question requires the learner to draw on two sources of information, e.g., "How do these two poems compare?"
Heuristic
________question calls for the learner to apply informal problem-solving skills, e.g., "What would be an innovative way to make Dickinson's poems known to today's readers?"
Reflective
_______________ question asks the learner to speculate, e.g., "If Dickinson were writing today, what topic do you believe she would be writing about?"
prompts
Background knowledge, process and procedure, reflective and heuristic are types of cognitive and metacognitive __________.
background knowledge
This prompt reminds the students of previously learned information, e.g., "I'm recalling our reading of Gettysburg Address and Lincoln'''''s use of the phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people."
Process and procedure
This prompts use of a previously taught method, e.g., "Remember to highlight the passages in the speech you think are key, and then annotate them.""
Reflective
This prompt causes students to notice their learning, e.g., "what do you know about the character of Lincoln now that you didn't know before you read his speech?"
Heuristic
This prompt invites students to notice their techniques, e.g., "I make a list of notable quotes on the bottom of the paper to use in my essay, and then check them off. How could you make sure you use direct quotes from his speech in your essay about Lincoln?"
Feed up
__________planning questions:
How will students be informed of the purpose fro this unit?

In what ways will they be required to set academic and social learning goals?
Checking for understanding
________ planning questions:

How will I check for understanding during instruction?

How will this information be organized?

When and how will my colleagues and I gather common assessment information?
Quality feedback
_______________planning questions:

When will students receive oral and written feedback?

How will students learn about effective and ineffective feedback techniques?

How will I build the capacity of my students to provide peer response feedback?
Feed forward
____________planning questions:

When and how often will error analysis take place?

On what concepts or skills?

How will it be visually displayed for analysis?

Based on the data, what revisions will take place?

How will I know these revisions are effective?
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
With the student diversity so evident in today's classrooms, it is essential that classroom teachers apply principles of _________________ as they implemented the Florida State Standards (FSS).
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
The newly reauthorized Elementary and Secondary Education Act, entitled Every Student Succeed Act (ESSA), also places emphasis on the use of ______________ in the planning, implementation, and assessment process.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
________________was first designed by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) over 25 years ago and is a framework that provides flexible instructional environments that will accommodate a wide range of individual learning differences. It encompasses all aspects of the teaching and learning process, including instructional goal, methods, materials and assessments.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
____________ is intended to increase access to the curriculum by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, and other barriers to learning.
prior knowledge, language abilities, learning styles
There are three factors that have a significant impact on the higher order thinking skills so essential to mastery of the Florida State Standards (FSS).
prior knowledge
__________ maybe affected by

their exposure to formal learning and.or education

the extent/type of life experiences

socio-economic issues

cultural issues
language abilities
The extent to which learners have language related issues )________________ associated with their:

status as English language learners (ELLs)

specific receptive and/or expressive language difficulties

auditory processing difficulties

specific language disabilities
learning styles
_____________________ is the manner in which students tend to learn best, e.g., do they learn best through:

experiential/hands-on experi8ences

visually or auditorily

through the use of technology

individually/in groups
beginning of a unit instruction
Instructional strategies for use at the ____________________
Setting Learning Goals
1. Identify clear learning goals
2. Allow students to identify and record their own learning goals.
during a unit
Instructional strategies to use ____________________
Monitoring learning goals

1. Provide students feedback and help them self-assess their progress toward achieving their goal.
2. Ask students to keep track of their achievement of the learning goals and of the effort they are expending to achieve the goals.
3. Periodically celebrate legitimate progress toward learning goals
during a unit
Instructional strategies to use ____________________

Introducing new knowledge

1. Guide students in identifying and articulating what they already know about the topic.
2. Provide students with ways of thinking about the topic in advance.
3. Ask students to compare the new knowledge with what is known.
4. Have students have notes on the knowledge addressed in the unit.
5. Help students represent the knowledge in nonlinguistic ways, periodically sharing theses representations with others.
6. Ask students to work sometimes individually, but other times in cooperative groups.
during a unit
Instructional strategies to use ____________________

Practicing, reviewing and applying knowledge.

1. Assign homework that requires students to practice, review, and apply what they have learned.; however, be sure to give students explicit feedback on accuracy of all homework.
2. Engage students in long-term projects that involve generating and testing hypotheses.
3. Ask students to revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic representations of knowledge in their notebooks as they refine their understanding of the knowledge.
End of a Unit
Instructional strategies for use at the____________________

Helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals

1. Provide students with clear assessments of their progress on each learning goal.
2. Have students assess themselves on each learning goal and compare these assessments with those of the teacher.
3. Ask students to articulate what they have learned about the content and about themselves as learners.
student achievement
Identifying similarities and differences is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Summarizing and note taking is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Homework and practice is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Nonlinguistic representations is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Cooperative learning is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Setting objectives and providing feedback is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Generating and testing hypotheses is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
student achievement
Questions, cues, and advance organizers is one of the 9 categories of strategies that have a strong effect on ________________
Fluency relationships
In oral language assessment, the key point for you, as the teacher to note, is that the use of a task-based approach should possess some constancy of elicitation input. Every student is assessed on the same learned concepts. Which of the following task types is NOT used to elicit spoken English?

a. static relationships
b. Fluency relationships
c. Dynamic relationships
d. Abstract relationships
static
_____________ relationships is when you ask the student to describe an object or photograph, instruct a student on how to assemble a piece of equipment or giving route directions.
Dynamic
______________ relationships involve storytelling or giving an eyewitness account.
Abstract
_____________ relationships are expressing an opinion or justifying a course of action.
Socratic method
What is the method of teaching that uses questions to deeply explore the meaning and logical strength of a claim or position?

a. constructive method
b. deconstructive method
c. Socratic method
d. Sophist method
Socratic
A teacher that uses the _________________method is encouraging dialogue and as a result, critical thinking. The ______________ method involves asking questions that investigate and clarify.
c. structure a series of questions to help his students locate Cuba on the map and recognize the geographic proximity to the U.S.
Leveled questions can be used at all grade levels and in all curricular areas. For example, Mr. Burrows is reviewing the Cuban missile crisis with his students and he wants to discuss the reasons for concern at the time. In order to encourage his ELL students to participate in the discussion, Mr. Burrows can do which of the following?

a. use TPR (total physical response)
b. implement free voluntary reading
c. structure a series of questions to help his students locate Cuba on the map and recognize the geographic proximity to the U.S.
d. have the students draw picture representing their past experiences related to the topic being discussed
d. portfolio assessment
Identify the method that is being used when a teacher evaluates a student's progress by having the student reflect his or her own feelings about comprehension with the help of a checklist.

a. test assessment
b. flexible testing technique
c. the cloze technique
d. portfolio assessment
Portfolio
____________ assessment is a type of alternative assessment that works out well for those students who are not yet proficient in the English language. It empowers students by enabling them to choose the items that will be evaluated and they can demonstrate their mastery of content through measures other than testing.
b. Cultural relevance requires comprehensive input
Preschoolers without a knowledge of print, older students without previous schooling, and the partially literate who may have acquired some decoding skills in their primary language but whose overall level of literacy does not provide them useful access to print are groups that need special treatment with regard to literacy instruction. Appropriate programs for these learners adhere to three important principles of literacy instruction. These principles include all but which of the following?

a. literacy is introduced in a meaningful way
b. Cultural relevance requires comprehensive input
c. the link between oral language and print is made as naturally as possible
d. students have the opportunity to enjoy reading and writing
three important principles of literacy instruction.
Preschoolers without a knowledge of print, older students without previous schooling, and the partially literate who may have acquired some decoding skills in their primary language but whose overall level of literacy does not provide them useful access to print - these groups need special treatment. Appropriate programs for these learners adhere to three important principles of literacy instruction that include that literacy is introduced in a meaningful way, the link between oral language and print is made as naturally as possible, and students have the opportunity to enjoy reading and writing.
d) Obtain alternate form of this text for the students
Some of the students are unable to read the textbook, how should the teacher handle the situation?

a) Have the teacher read the assignment pages to the students
b) Make shorter assignments of the text for these students
c) Spend part of the class period having the students read aloud
d) Obtain alternate form of this text for the students
Identify examples of the concept
A teacher wishes to evaluate a student's ability to apply concepts that have been presented in class. What should test item require student to do?

A. List the attribute of the concept
B. Use the concept in novel situation
C. Identify examples of the concept
D. Recognize the definition of the concept
A norm-referenced achievement test
A social study teacher would like to know if her student knowledge of social study is similar to that of other students through the United States. What type of standardized test would best give the teacher this information?

A. A norm-referenced intelligence test
B. A norm-referenced achievement test
C. A criterion-referenced intelligence test
D. A criterion-referenced achievement test
B. Vary the length and depth of the assignment
Which procedure will be most useful in making the academic assignment meet the needs of the ESE students?

A. Make assignment on alternate days
B. Vary the length and depth of the assignment
C. Lower the reading level of all assigned material
D. Provide rubrics during all seatwork assignment
C. Reinforce correct usage: make some corrections and serves as a positive model
Several students from culturally different background are experiencing challenges with the use of Standard English. How should the teacher respond to these challenges?

A. Correct all the student errors in the class to the appropriate rule
B. Disregard the misuse of the language and consider then acceptable medium of exchange in the student's home
C. Reinforce correct usage: make some corrections and serves as a positive model
D. Refer student with non traditional English skills to learn English as a second language
C. The objective should conforms to states performance standards
In planning for a unit of instruction, a teacher has determined the needs, interest and abilities of her students. In identifying the objectives for the unit what criterion should be apply next?

A. The objective should be slightly above the students' ability level
B. The objective should be covered in the states adapted textbook
C. The objective should conforms to states performance standards
D. The objective should be measured by the standardized test used in the district
C. Commissioner reaches a decision in the matter
The complaint and all information obtained during an investigation of an educator by the Florida Department of Education are confidential until?

A. Preliminary investigation is concluded
B. Hearing officer finding of fact is determined
C. Commissioner reaches a decision in the matter
D. School board take final action
D. Language diffusion
An ESOL student applies the use of his or her first language in acquisition of English. This is an example of?

A. Language transfer
B. Code switching
C. Comprehensible input
D. Language diffusion
C. Obtain alternate form of this text for the students
Some of the students are unable to read the textbook, how should the teacher handle the situation?

A. Have the teacher read the assignment pages to the students
B. Make shorter assignments of the text for these students
C. Obtain alternate form of this text for the students
D. Spend part of the class period having the students read aloud
C. Providing content support for ESOL students
The goal of specially designed academic instruction in English is?

A. Preparing ESOL student linguistically and academically
B. Fostering English language acquisition opportunities for ESOL students
C. Providing content support for ESOL students
D. Teaching academic reading, writing, speaking and listening skills to ESOL students
D. Critical question technique
During a class discussions, a teacher wants to emphasize significant concepts and information. Which strategy will best achieve this goal?

A. Positive and negative reinforcement
B. Underscoring and repetition
C. Paraphrasing prompts
D. Critical question technique
D. Sharing knowledge will help to enrich learning by all student and the teacher
Incorrect

92) Several Native American students transferred from the native schools to a near by public school. The teacher arranges for the students to domstrate games the students play in the reservation. What strategy is illustrated here?

A. Sharing knowledge for the students to accept the native student
B. Sharing knowledge will enable the student interact on equal terms with other students
C. Sharing knowledge will assure successful interaction between teacher and students
D. Sharing knowledge will help to enrich learning by all student and the teacher
A. Ask questions that require students to show explain or describe
A teacher notices that students seem disinterested in class topic. The teacher wants to liven up the discussion portion of the lesson to increase student's participation, what is the best procedure for the teacher to follow?

A. Ask questions that require students to show explain or describe
B. Ask questions that have students response to how, when and where
C. Ask question that have students to recall and recognize
D. Ask question that have students predict outcomes and solve problem
Albert Bandura
Who developed social learning theory?
a) cognitive domain
A student listens to a story and recreates it in his own words in the puppet theater. Which of the following domains does this activity represent?

a) cognitive domain
b) affective domain
c) psychomotor domain
d) moral domain
cognitive
_____________ domain deals with intellectual development
affective
_____________ domain deals with emotions, motivations, and attitudes.
psychomotor
_____________ domain deals with motor skill development
moral
_____________ domain deals with the acquisition of values.
quantitative
Data that collect numbers, such as standardized test scores, are ________________ (research).
qualitative
Surveys are somewhat subjective; therefore they are______________________ (research).
quantitative
Attendance rates are ______________ data.
differentiation
____________________provides instruction to meet needs of all learners.
spiraling
Reteaching the same material at progressively deeper levels throughout the year is _________________ the curriculum.
zone of proximal development
Providing guided instruction at the students' instructional level is using the _______________
English learners
Specific scores on state-selected language and achievement tests are designated as cutoff points that determine when _________________ no longer require English Language programs and services.
cognitivism
Learning activities, such as graphic organizers, are aligned to ______________________.
social learning
Demonstrations are aligned to __________________ theory.
constructivism
_______________________ advocates for inquiry-based learning.
constructivist
Scaffolding falls under the _________________ theory.
cognitivism
Graphic organizers are aligned to _____________ as they help students connect new learning to existing schema.
constructivism
__________________uses scaffolding within a student ZPD.
Cognitivism
_________________promotes connecting learning to schema.
social learning
_____________________theory advocates learning by imitating the example of a more knowledgeable other.
content knowledge
criterion-referenced tests measure ________________.