38 terms

Unit 10: Europe

STUDY
PLAY
temperate
mild; moderate in temperature
deforestation
the process of clearing land by cutting down trees to make space for farms and cities
navigable
able to be traveled upon by boats or ships
Middle Ages
time period nicknamed the "Age of Faith"; when the Crusades and Black Plague took place
manor
large, self-sufficient estate in the feudal Middle Ages
serf
peasant who worked the land in the Middle Ages
feudalism
a system for organizing and governing society based on land and service
lord
a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
vassal
a knight who was given a fief (land) from his lord in exchange for loyalty and service
guild
A group of workers that set standards and protected the interests of its members.
Magna Carta
a legal document that the English lords forced King John I to sign; stated certain rights and limited the power of the king
convent
A community in which nuns lead lives devoted to religion.
monastery
A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
nun
a woman who devotes her life to religion
cathedral
an important Christian church
saint
a person who is especially holy to a religious group
crusade
any of the journeys and battles undertaken by European Christians to win control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
plague
a terrible disease that spreads quickly and kills many people
Renaissance
a period of cultural "rebirth" and great artistic change that began in Italy and spread across Europe
humanism
idea that focused on human values and what people can achieve in THIS world; theme of the Renaissance
patron
a supporter of the arts
indulgence
paying the church for forgiveness to get into heaven
reform
to change
Reformation
a movement to bring change to the Roman Catholic church; led to the start of Protestantism
Protestantism
the beliefs of Christians who opposed or protested against the Roman Catholic church
armada
a fleet of warships
Charlemagne
king of the Franks who loved learning and spread Christianity; appointed "Holy Roman Emperor"
Pope Urban II
ordered the start of the first crusade
King John I
abused his power and was forced to sign the Magna Carta
Martin Luther
wrote the 95 Theses and sparked the Reformation
Lorenzo Medici
wealthy patron who supported artists in Florence and helped to start the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci
A painter, sculptor, and inventor who had many talents and wrote his ideas backwards to keep them secret.
Florence
city where the Renaissance began
Nicolaus Copernicus
A scientist who discovered the Earth orbited around the sun.
King Henry VIII
wanted a divorce and started the protestant Church of England when the pope wouldn't grant him one
Queen Elizabeth I
powerful queen of England who fought off the Spanish armada and sparked England's version of the Renaissance
Michelangelo
An artist who created the famous sculpture called David and painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
William Shakespeare
An author from England who wrote many poems and plays (such as Romeo and Juliet) and invented words still used in the English language today.
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