Unit 10: Europe
mild; moderate in temperature
the process of clearing land by cutting down trees to make space for farms and cities
able to be traveled upon by boats or ships
time period nicknamed the "Age of Faith"; when the Crusades and Black Plague took place
large, self-sufficient estate in the feudal Middle Ages
peasant who worked the land in the Middle Ages
a system for organizing and governing society based on land and service
a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
a knight who was given a fief (land) from his lord in exchange for loyalty and service
A group of workers that set standards and protected the interests of its members.
a legal document that the English lords forced King John I to sign; stated certain rights and limited the power of the king
A community in which nuns lead lives devoted to religion.
A community in which monks lead lives devoted to religion.
a woman who devotes her life to religion
an important Christian church
a person who is especially holy to a religious group
any of the journeys and battles undertaken by European Christians to win control of the Holy Land from the Muslims
a terrible disease that spreads quickly and kills many people
a period of cultural "rebirth" and great artistic change that began in Italy and spread across Europe
idea that focused on human values and what people can achieve in THIS world; theme of the Renaissance
a supporter of the arts
paying the church for forgiveness to get into heaven
a movement to bring change to the Roman Catholic church; led to the start of Protestantism
the beliefs of Christians who opposed or protested against the Roman Catholic church
a fleet of warships
king of the Franks who loved learning and spread Christianity; appointed "Holy Roman Emperor"
Pope Urban II
ordered the start of the first crusade
King John I
abused his power and was forced to sign the Magna Carta
wrote the 95 Theses and sparked the Reformation
wealthy patron who supported artists in Florence and helped to start the Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci
A painter, sculptor, and inventor who had many talents and wrote his ideas backwards to keep them secret.
city where the Renaissance began
A scientist who discovered the Earth orbited around the sun.
King Henry VIII
wanted a divorce and started the protestant Church of England when the pope wouldn't grant him one
Queen Elizabeth I
powerful queen of England who fought off the Spanish armada and sparked England's version of the Renaissance
An artist who created the famous sculpture called David and painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
An author from England who wrote many poems and plays (such as Romeo and Juliet) and invented words still used in the English language today.
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