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Chapter 6 - Sedimentary & Metamorphic Rocks - Study Guide

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sediments
consists of solid material that has been deposited on Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation.
unsorted deposits
Glaciers and landslides tend to create _____________ in which sediments of different sizes are mixed together.
chemical weathering
During_________, the minerals in a rock are dissolved or otherwise chemically changed.
cementation
This process by which minerals growth binds sediments grains together into solid rock is _____________.
clastic sediments
Weathering produces____________, which are rock and mineral fragments.
sedimentary rock
Weathering sediments become cemented together, they form_____________.
deposition
As a result of _____________, sediments are laid down on the ground or on the bottom of bodies of water.
lithification
The physical and chemical process called____________transforms sediments into sedimentary rocks.
physical weathering
During_____________, minerals remain chemically unchanged, and rock fragments simply break off of the solid rock along fractures or grain boundaries.
sorted deposits
Sediments tend to form________________when transported by water and wind.
False
Lithification begins with erosion.
True
Muds may contain up to 60 percent water and shrink as excess water is squeezed out.
False
Sands are usually poorly compacted during deposition, and they tend to compact a great deal during burial.
True
Groundwater, oil, and natural gas are commonly found within pore spaces in sedimentary rocks.
False
The temperature in Earth's crust decreases with depth.
True
Sediments buried 3 to 4 km deep experience temperature that start the chemical and mineral changes that cause cementation.
True
In one type of cementation, a new mineral grows between sediment grains.
True
In one type of cementation, existing minerals grains grow larger as the same mineral precipitates and crystallizes around them.
bedding
The primary feature of sedimentary rocks is _______________, or horizontal layering.
transport
The type of bedding that occurs depends upon the sediment's method of_____________.
graded bedding
Bedding is called_____________when the heaviest and coarsest material is on the bottom.
cross-bedding
A second type of bedding called___________forms as inclined layers of sediments= migrate forward across a horizontal surface.
sand dunes
Large-scale cross-bedding can be formed by migrating _______________.
ripple marks
When sediment is moved into small ridges by wind or wave action, ___________can form.
fossils
Many sedimentary rocks contain______________,the preserved remains, impressions, or any other evidence of once-living organisms.
lithification
During_____________, parts of an organism can be replaced by minerals and turned into rock.
clastic
Breccias and conglomerates are example.
clastic
Classified my particle size.
organic
Coal is an example.
organic
Formed from the remains of once-living things.
clastic
Formed from deposits of loose sediments.
chemical
Often contains calcite, halite, or gypsum.
chemical
Forms evaporites.
clastic
Sandstone is a medium-grained example.
chemical
Formed from precipitation and growth of mineral crystals.
organic
Formed from the shells of sea organisms.
contact metamorphism
Occurs when rocks come into contact with molten rock.
foliated metamorphic rock
Characterized by wavy layers and bands of light and dark minerals.
non foliated metamorphic rock
Composed mainly of minerals with blocky crystal shapes.
metamorphic rock
Rock whose texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition has been altered without melting it.
hydrothermal metamorphism
Occurs when very hot water reacts with rock.
porphyroblasts
Large crystals of new metamorphic minerals.
regional metamorphism
Metamorphism resulting from high temperature and pressure that affects a large region.
pressure from weight of overlying rock
The pressure required for metamorphism can be generated by:
mineral groups found in the rocks
A regional metamorphic belt is divided into zones based upon:
high temperature and moderate-to-low pressure
Contact metamorphism occurs under conditions of:
igneous intrusions
Minerals that crystallize at higher temperatures as a result of contact metamorphism tend to be found near:
hydrothermal
The type of metamorphism that occurs when very hot water reacts with and alters the mineralogy of rock is:
foliated
Metamorphic rocks in which the long axes of their minerals are perpendicular to the pressure that altered them are describes as:
non foliated
Metamorphic rocks that lack mineral grains with long axes oriented in one direction are describes as:
size
Porphyroblasts differ from the minerals surrounding them in terms of:
chemistry
Hot fluids migrating into and out of a rock during metamorphism can change the rock's:
made from crystals, made from magma
How are igneous rocks formed?
becomes sediments
What happens to igneous rocks that undergo weathering and erosion?
sediments undergo deposition, burial, and lithification
How do sediments become sedimentary rock?
heat and pressure
What forces cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into metamorphic rocks?
metamorphic rock can melt to form magma, magma cools down -> form igneous rock
How can metamorphic rock can be transformed into igneous rock?
uplifted, weathered, and erosion
How can sandstone be transformed into sediment without becoming metamorphic.