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consists of solid material that has been deposited on Earth's surface by wind, water, ice, gravity, or chemical precipitation.

unsorted deposits

Glaciers and landslides tend to create _____________ in which sediments of different sizes are mixed together.

chemical weathering

During_________, the minerals in a rock are dissolved or otherwise chemically changed.


This process by which minerals growth binds sediments grains together into solid rock is _____________.

clastic sediments

Weathering produces____________, which are rock and mineral fragments.

sedimentary rock

Weathering sediments become cemented together, they form_____________.


As a result of _____________, sediments are laid down on the ground or on the bottom of bodies of water.


The physical and chemical process called____________transforms sediments into sedimentary rocks.

physical weathering

During_____________, minerals remain chemically unchanged, and rock fragments simply break off of the solid rock along fractures or grain boundaries.

sorted deposits

Sediments tend to form________________when transported by water and wind.


Lithification begins with erosion.


Muds may contain up to 60 percent water and shrink as excess water is squeezed out.


Sands are usually poorly compacted during deposition, and they tend to compact a great deal during burial.


Groundwater, oil, and natural gas are commonly found within pore spaces in sedimentary rocks.


The temperature in Earth's crust decreases with depth.


Sediments buried 3 to 4 km deep experience temperature that start the chemical and mineral changes that cause cementation.


In one type of cementation, a new mineral grows between sediment grains.


In one type of cementation, existing minerals grains grow larger as the same mineral precipitates and crystallizes around them.


The primary feature of sedimentary rocks is _______________, or horizontal layering.


The type of bedding that occurs depends upon the sediment's method of_____________.

graded bedding

Bedding is called_____________when the heaviest and coarsest material is on the bottom.


A second type of bedding called___________forms as inclined layers of sediments= migrate forward across a horizontal surface.

sand dunes

Large-scale cross-bedding can be formed by migrating _______________.

ripple marks

When sediment is moved into small ridges by wind or wave action, ___________can form.


Many sedimentary rocks contain______________,the preserved remains, impressions, or any other evidence of once-living organisms.


During_____________, parts of an organism can be replaced by minerals and turned into rock.


Breccias and conglomerates are example.


Classified my particle size.


Coal is an example.


Formed from the remains of once-living things.


Formed from deposits of loose sediments.


Often contains calcite, halite, or gypsum.


Forms evaporites.


Sandstone is a medium-grained example.


Formed from precipitation and growth of mineral crystals.


Formed from the shells of sea organisms.

contact metamorphism

Occurs when rocks come into contact with molten rock.

foliated metamorphic rock

Characterized by wavy layers and bands of light and dark minerals.

non foliated metamorphic rock

Composed mainly of minerals with blocky crystal shapes.

metamorphic rock

Rock whose texture, mineralogy, or chemical composition has been altered without melting it.

hydrothermal metamorphism

Occurs when very hot water reacts with rock.


Large crystals of new metamorphic minerals.

regional metamorphism

Metamorphism resulting from high temperature and pressure that affects a large region.

pressure from weight of overlying rock

The pressure required for metamorphism can be generated by:

mineral groups found in the rocks

A regional metamorphic belt is divided into zones based upon:

high temperature and moderate-to-low pressure

Contact metamorphism occurs under conditions of:

igneous intrusions

Minerals that crystallize at higher temperatures as a result of contact metamorphism tend to be found near:


The type of metamorphism that occurs when very hot water reacts with and alters the mineralogy of rock is:


Metamorphic rocks in which the long axes of their minerals are perpendicular to the pressure that altered them are describes as:

non foliated

Metamorphic rocks that lack mineral grains with long axes oriented in one direction are describes as:


Porphyroblasts differ from the minerals surrounding them in terms of:


Hot fluids migrating into and out of a rock during metamorphism can change the rock's:

made from crystals, made from magma

How are igneous rocks formed?

becomes sediments

What happens to igneous rocks that undergo weathering and erosion?

sediments undergo deposition, burial, and lithification

How do sediments become sedimentary rock?

heat and pressure

What forces cause sedimentary rocks to be transformed into metamorphic rocks?

metamorphic rock can melt to form magma, magma cools down -> form igneous rock

How can metamorphic rock can be transformed into igneous rock?

uplifted, weathered, and erosion

How can sandstone be transformed into sediment without becoming metamorphic.

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