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Piaget's Cognitive Theory

Thinking develops in stages.

Phonics Approach

Believes that children should first be coached on phonics.

Most reading experts believe that_________.

Combining phonics with whole language is the best method for teaching beginning reading.

What is regarded as one of the most interventions for treating childhood obesity?

A family-based approach focused on changing behaviors.

Studies suggest that a time out is useful as a disciplinary technique________.

When a child is out of control.

Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by________.

Adjusting their expectation to children's capacities.

Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have___________.

An advanced theory of mind.

Social Referencing

Infants use this by actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.

The rise in fear after 6 months is adaptive because it____________.

Keeps newly mobile babies' enthusiasm for exploration in check.


When toddlers first learn words, they apply them too narrowly, an error called this.

Core knowledge theorists assume that__________.

Infants start out life with a set of prewired understandings.

Some critics of the violation-of-expectation method__________.

Believe that it reveals only babies' perceptual preference for novelty not their understand of experience.

Convergent Thinking

Thinking which involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligent tests.

Divergent Thinking

The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem.

Cooperative Learning

Learning in which small groups of classmates work toward common goals.

Emotional Intelligence

Refers to a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information.

Theory of Multiple Intelligences

Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide-range of culturally valued activities.

Practical Intelligence

Application of intellectual skills in everyday situations.

Creative Intelligence

The capacity to solve novel problems.

Analytical Intelligences

Information-processing skills.

Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence

Identifies 3 broad interacting intelliegences:

Educational Self-Fufilling Prophecies

Children may adopt teacher's positive or negative views and starts to live up to them.

Whole-Language Approach

Argues that reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning.

Cognitive Self-Regulation

The process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.

Cognitive Maps

Their mental representations of familiar large scale-spaces.

Transitive Interference

The concrete operational child can also seriate mentally.


The ability to order items along a quantitive dimension.


The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.

Concrete Operational Stage

(7-11 yrs.) Marks a major turning point in cognitive development.

Dominance Hierarchy

A stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises.

Uninvolved Style

Combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference of issues of autonomy.

Permissive Style

Warm and accepting but uninvolved.

Psychological Control

Behaviors that intrude on or manipulate children's expression to parents.

Authoritarian Style

Low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control and low in autonomy granting.

Authoritative Style

The most successful approach-involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques and appropriate autonomy granting.

Child-Rearing Style

Combinations of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate.

Gender Schema Theory

An information-processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitive developmental features work together.


Scoring hight on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics.

Gender Typing

Refers to any association of objects, activities, roles of traits with one sex or the other ways to conform cultural strategies.

Relational Aggression

Damages another's peer relationships.

Verbal Aggression

Harms others through threats of physical aggression.

Physical Aggression

Harms others through physical injury.

Reactive Aggression

an angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal, and is meant to hurt another person.

Proactive Aggression

Children act to fulfill a need or desire.

Moral Imperatives

Protect people's rights and welfare from two other types of rules and expectations.


Specific psychological structures-organized ways of making sense of experience.

Sensorimotor Stage

Piaget believed that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment.


An adult helps the children notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others.

Cooperative Play

A more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal.

Associative Play

Children engage in separate activities, but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior.

Parallel Play

A child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior.


The idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.


They focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.


An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.

Hierarchical Classification

The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.

Private Speech

Children's self-directed speech.


Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.

Guided Participation

A broader concept than scaffolding. Refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less specifying the precise feature of communication.


General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation.


"Thinking about thought"

Emergent Literacy

Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences.

Phonological Awareness

Ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language.

Animistic Thinking

The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities.


Failure to distinguish the symbolic view points of others from one's own.

Dual Representational

Viewing a symbolic object as both an objects in its own right and a symbol.

Sociodramatic Play

The make-believe with others that is under way around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years.

Preperational Stage

Spans the years 2 to 7, the obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational or symbolic, activity.

Psychosocial Dwarfism

A growth disorder that usually appears between ages 2 and 15.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Promotes that thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine.

Growth Hormone (GH)

Necessary for development of all body tissues except the centralnervous system and the genitals.

Pituaitary Gland

Located at the base of the brain, plays a critical rule by releasing two hormones that induce growth.

Corpus Callosum

A large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.


Plays a vital role in memory.

Reticular Formation

A structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness.


A structure that aids in balance of body movement.

Dominant Cerebral Hemisphere

Carry out skilled motor action.

Delay of Gratification

Waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act.

Emotional Self-Regulation

The strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals.

Self-Conscous Emotions

Humans are capable of a second higher-order set of feelings.

Social Referencing

Actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in a an uncertain situation.

Secure Base

Babies use the familiar caregiver as a secure base or point from which to explore, venturing into the environment then returning for emotional support.

Social Smile

Between 6 and 10 weeks, the parent's communication evokes a broad grin.

Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt

The conflict of toddlerhood is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices.

Basic Emotions

Universal in humans and other primates and have evolutionary history of promoting survival.

Expressive Style

Compared with referential children, they produce many more social formulas and pronouns.

Basic Trust v. Mistrust

When a balance of care is sympathetic and loving, the psychological conflict of the first year.

Child-Directed Speech (CDS)

A form of communication made up of short sentences with high pitched, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, on distinct pauses between speech segments of new words.

Telegraphic Speech (TS)

Two-word utterances that focus on high-content words, omitting smaller, less important ones.


Applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.


When toddlers first learn words, they often apply them too narrowly.

Referential Style

Their vocab consisted mainly of words that refer to objects.

Joint Attention

The child attends to the same objects or event as the caregiver.


Infants repeat consonant-vowel combinations in long strings.


Vowel-like noises.

Language Acquisition Device

An innate system that contains a universal grammar, or set of rules common to all languages.

Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Specify program characteristics that serve young children's developmental and individual needs, based on current research and expert consensus.

Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME)

A checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview.

Developmental Quotients (DQ)

Infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

Indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals.


Giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores.

Normal Distribution

Most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes.

Zone of Proximal Development

Refers to a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle a lone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.


Involves remembering something not present.


Noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced.

Long-Term Memory

Our permanent knowledge base.

Central Executive

Directs the flow of information.

Working or Short-Term Memory

We actively apply mental strategies as we "work" on a limited amount of information.

Sensory Register

Where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly.

Mental Strategies

Used to operate on and transform it, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it efficiently, think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances.

Core-Knowledge Perspective

Babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems.

The Violation-of-Expectation Method

They may habituate babies to a physical event to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested.

Deferred Imitation

The ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present.

Mental Representations

Internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate.

Intentional or Goal-Directed, Behvaior

Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems.

Circular Reaction

Provides a special means of adapting their first schemes.


A process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment.


We use our current schemes to interpret the external world.


Order relationships between quantities.


The last number in a counting sequence indicated the quantity of items in a set.


Connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter.


Overextended the rules to words that are exceptions.


Children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication.


Restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form.

Initiative v. Guilt

Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks.

Nonsocial Activity

Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play.

Prosocial or Altruistic Behavior

Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self.

Ethological Theory of Attachment

Recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival, is the most widely accepted view.

Goodness-of-Fit Model

A model used to describe how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes.

Uninhabited Children (Sociable)

Children who display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli.

Effortful Control

The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response.

Internal Working Model

A set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress.

Strange Situation

Takes the baby through 8 short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with the parent occur.

Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, a car, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of

c. accommodation

Some critics of the violation-of-expectation method

a. believe that it reveals only babies' perceptual preference for novelty, not their understanding of experience.

Core knowledge theorists assume that

infants start out life with a set of prewired understandings

When toddlers first learn words, they often apply them too narrowly, an error called

a. underextension.

The rise in fear after 6 months is adaptive because it

keeps newly mobile babies' enthusiasm for exploration in check

Infants use __________ by actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.

social referencing

Sayuri, who lives in a collectivist culture, wins a game. Her parents will probably encourage Sayuri to feel

embarrassed by the individual attention.

In the Strange Situation, Sara approaches her parent during reunion with flat, depressed emotion. Sara looks away while her parent is holding her and displays a dazed facial expression. Sara is demonstrating characteristics of __________attachment.


Three-year-old Will brings all of his action figures to preschool for show-and-tell because he does not want any of them to feel bad if they are left behind at home. Will is demonstrating

animistic thinking.

Over spring vacation, Gerald goes to Disney World with his family. When he returns to school, Gerald excitedly tells his teacher about the trip. Gerald's representation of this personally meaningful, one-time event is known as

an autobiographical memory.

One reason that gains in IQ and achievement test scores from attending Head Start quickly dissolve is that many of the children

enter low-quality public schools.

Growing evidence reveals that children with autism have

an advanced theory of mind.

When trying to promote friendly peer interaction in her preschool classroom, Miss Dodge should

encourage compromise rather than insisting on sharing.

Research examining cultural variations in personal storytelling shows that

Chinese parents use storytelling to guide children toward socially responsible behavior.

Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by

adjusting their expectations to children's capacities.

Studies suggest that time out is useful as a disciplinary technique

when a child is out of control.

Which of the following is regarded as one of the most effective interventions for treating childhood obesity?

a family-based approach focused on changing behaviors

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