Chapter 37 American Pageant

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Terms in this set (...)

International Business Machines (IBM)
Represented the "high tech" corporations being created in the beginning of the "information age"
Boeing
Seattle based aircraft company which created the first large passenger jet (707) modeled off of the B-52 bomber created by SAC
White Collar
Office and service based jobs
Blue Collar
Industrial and manufacturing jobs
"Cult of Domesticity"
Term alluding to the culture depicted in television in shows such as "Ozzie and Harriet" or "Leave it to Beaver" of the stay at home wife and mother
Pink collar Ghetto
Expansion of clerical jobs, most of which occupied by women
Betty Friedan
feminist who published "The Feminine Mystique" in 1963
The Feminine Mystique
Best seller and a classic of feminist protest literature that launched the modern women's moevemnt
Televanelists
People who preached Christianity through television
Baptist Billy Graham
Televangelist
Oral Roberts
Pentecostal Holiness preacher and televangelist
Fulton J. SHeen
Roman Catholic televangelist
Elvis Presley
Born in Tupelo, Mississippi and fused black rhythm and blues sith white bluegrass and country styles in rock 'n' roll; influenced John Lennon and Paul McCartney of the Beatles
Marilyn Monroe
Popularized the new standards of sensuous sexuality as an actor and on Playboy magazine
David Riesman
Harvard sociologist who portrayed the postwar generation as a pack of conformists in "The Lonely Crowd" (1950)
WIlliam H. Whyte, Jr.
Also lamented over conformity in America in "The Organization Man"
Sloan Wilson
novelist who explored the theme of conformity in "The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit" (1955)
John Kenneth Galbraith
Economist who questioned the relation between private wealth and the public good in a series of books beginning with "The Affluent Society" (1958)
Adlai E. Stevenson
Idealistic governor of Illinois who was nominated by the Democrats in 1952
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Ran for Republicans in 1952 election; war hero; won election
Richard E. Nixon
Vice presidential candidate to Eisenhower
Dean Acheson
Secretary of State during 1952
Checkers Speech
Saved Nixon's spot on the presidential ticket in which he denied ever receiving campaign gifts except for his cocker spaniel, Checkers
Joseph R. McCarthy
Senator who gained popularity for accusing Secretary of State Dean Acheson of knowingly employing 205 Communist party members
McCarthyism
Paranoia towards Communism and suspicion towards anything unusual as Communist
Army-McCarthy hearings
35 days of televised hearings in which McCarthy accused the army of disloyalty; ruined his career because he finally went too far
Jim Crow Laws
Harsh laws that segregated blacks and Governed all aspects of African Americans' existence in the South
Emmett Till
black 14 year old lynched by a Mississippi mob for allegedly leering at a white woman
Paul Robeson and Josephine Baker
African American entertainers who toured widely in Europe and Latin America, informing audiences about the horrors of Jim Crow
Gunnar Myrdal
Swedish scholar who published his landmark book, "An American Dilemma" which criticized America's treatment of blacks
Jackie Robinson
cracked baseball's color barrier when the Brooklyn Dodgers signed him in 1947
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of COlored People; pushed the SUpreme Court in 1950 to rule in Sweatt v. Painter to rule that separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality
Sweatt v. Painter
ruled on whether separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet the test of equality
Rosa Parks
Black woman who refused to sit at the back of the bus; started the civil rights movement
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Boycott against the buses in Montgomery Alabama, lead byMartin Luther King Jr.
"To Secure these RIghts"
report commissioned by Truman which recommended the desegregation of the army
Earl Warren
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who led the Court to address urgent issues that Congress and the President preferred to avoid such as civil rights
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
reversed previous decision in Plessy v. Ferguson to segregate schools; desegregated schools
Declaration of Constitutional Principles
Signed by more than a hundred soutthern congressional representatives and senators; pledged to oppose desegregation
Little Rock Central High School
Where 9 black students were escorted by troops to their classes due to the governor of Arkansas trying to block them from entering
Southern Christian Leadership Confernece (SCLC)
Set up by MLK to mobilize the vast power of the black churches on behalf of black rights
"Sit in"
Where African Americans would come into a whites only restaurant and "sit in" refusing to leave until being served
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Formed by southern black students to fight for civil rights
Operation Wetback
massive roundup of illegal immigrants in which 1 million Mexicans were deported
Federal Highway Act of 1956
27 Billion dollars appropriated to construct Highways across the U.S. and backed by Eisenhower; although initially for defense purposes it stimulated the economy
John Foster Dulles
Secretary of State who promised to combat Communism even where it was already established rather than simply contain it
Policy of Boldness
Policy endorsed by Dulles in which army and navy would take a backseat while a fleet of nuclear bombers would be created named the Strategic Air Command (SAC)
Nikita Kruschev
Successor to Joseph Stalin as leader of the Soviet Union
Hungarian Uprising
Failed uprising of Hungarians against Soviets
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of Vietnam who headed the Nationalist forces called the Viet Minh
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Victory for North Vietnam which led to the UN formally dividing Vietnam into North and South
Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
Dictator of Iran set up by the CIA to secure oil
Suez Crisis
Conflict between Britain and Egypt when President Nasser of Egypt nationalized the British owned Suez Canal
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Coalition between Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran and Venezuela
James R. "Jimmy" Hoffa
leader of the Teamsters Union who was convicted of jury tampering
Landrum Griffin Act (1959)
Designed to bring labor leaders to book for financial shenanigans and bullying tactics
Sputnik I and II
Soviet satellites launched one being unmanned and the second containing a dog
ICBMs
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles
National Aeronatuics and Space Adminsitration (NASA)
Established by US in response to Sputnik
National Defense and Education Act (NDEA)
Gave 887 million in lonas to needy college students and grants for the improvemnt of teaching the sciences and languages in 1958
Camp David
Meeting with Soviets in which they proposed disarmament but in the Paris "Summit Conference" it was retracted due to a US spy plane being shot down in Russia
Fulgencio Batista
Dictator of Cuba who was favored by the US and ousted by the communist FIdel Castro
Helms-Burton Act (1996)
Strengthened embargo on Cuba
Kitchen Debate
Debate between Nixon and Krushchev about the superiority of American Consumerism and Soviet economic planning
John F. Kennedy
Ran for Democrats in election of 1960; first Roman Catholic president
Richard E. Nixon
ran for republicans against Kennedy in election of 1960
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
running mate for Nixon
22nd Amendment (1951)
Limited the president to 2 terms
Post WWII Authors
Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Norman Mailer, James JOnes, James Gould Cozzens, Joseph Heller, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.,
Authors on affluence in America
John Updike, John Cheever, Louis Auchincloss, Gore Vidal
Poets
Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, WIlliam Carlos WIlliams, Theodore Roethke, Robert Lowell, Anne sexton, JOhn Berryman (last 2 committed suicide)
Playwrights
Tennessee WIlliams, Aruthur Miller, Lorraine Hansberry, Edward Albee
Black Authors
Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, James Baldwin, Leroi Jones (Imamu AMiri Baraka)
Southern Authors
William Falkner, Walker Percy, Eudora Welt, ROvert Penn Warren, Flannery O'COnnor, William Styron
Jewish novelists
J.D. Salinger, Bernard Malamud, Philip Roth, Saul Bellow, Isac Bashevis Singer, E. L. Doctorow,