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87 terms

Proteins

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Proteins are compounds composed of?
carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen
Proteins are arranged into these chains?
Amino Acid
The human body contains an estimated _____ kinds of proteins
10,000 - 50,000
Protein is the only macronutrient to contain this element?
Nitrogen
What suffix means nitrogen containing?
Amino
Some amino acids contain what other element?
sulfur
What makes up proteins?
Amino Acids
What part of the amino acid structure contains a negarive charge and the Alkaline group?
Amino Group
What part of the amino acid structure contains the carboxyl group is acidic and contains a positive charge?
Acid Group
All AA's share common structures with different?
side groups
There are _____ common amino acids that may be classified into ___ groups based on structure.
20 7
What is the phrase used to remember the essential amino acids?
Harry watches TV TILL PM
What are the essential Amino Acids?
Histidine Tryptophan Valine Theronine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Methionone
How many essential amino acids are there?
9
Essential amino acids must be obtained from your?
diet
Nonessential amino acids can be produced in the?
body
Nonessential amino acids are also provide by _______ in foods
proteins
The condensation of 2 AA bonded together is known as a?
Dipeptide
The condensation of 3 AA bonded together is known as a?
Tripeptide
The condensation of 4-9 AA bonded together is known as a?
Oligopeptide
The condensation of 10 or more AA together is known as a?
Polypeptide
a ____ _______ is a bond that connects the acid end of one AA with the amino end of another AA, forming a link in a protein chain.
Peptide Bond
Disulfide bridges formed by S atoms link _____ molecules together in Insulin
Cysteine
Each human AA sequence is unique with small _______ in body's proteins
differences
Each human amino acid sequence is determined by ______
genes
Instructions for making every protein is filed in the ______ with in each ____ _____
DNA Cell Nucleus
Errors that alter AA sequence/ mistakes made in copying genetic code is known as a?
sequencing error
Sickle-cell anemia is an example of a?
sequencing error
What shape of protein acts as a carrier protein?
hollow spheres
What shape of protein is strong ex. tendon
rod-like structures
What shape of protein contain other compounds?
folded globular polypeptide chains
A protein's _______ helps determine its function in the body.
Shape
when a cell makes a protein, the gene for that protein has been ________.
expressed
Switching genes on and off, without changing the genetic sequence, is known as ___________
epigenetics
when a protein is ________ or uncoiled it loses it shape and function
denatured
Denaturation is caused by what 6 main things?
Heat Acids Bases Alcohol Agitation Heavy Metals
In the stomach protein is broken down by pepsin and HCL into smaller _________.
polypeptides
In the small intestine and pancreas polypeptides are broken down by pancreatic and intestinal proteases into ______, ________ and ______ ______
tripeptides dipeptides amino acids
In the small intestine and pancreas peptides are broken down by intestinal tripeptidases and dipeptidases into _____ ______ and absorbed
amino acids
The major organ of protein digestion is the?
Stomach
enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds are known as?
peptidase
Enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds within the protein chain?
endopeptidase
enzyme that cleaves the bonds at the chain end to release free AA?
exopeptidase
______ ________ are the end products of protein hydrolysis.
amino acids
amino acids are transported from the small intestines to the liver via the?
bloodstream
Protein can be _______ material for growth and maintenance.
building
Proteins can act as an _______ which facilitates a specific reaction.
enzyme
Proteins can act as a ______ which are chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands in response to altered conditions in the body
Hormones
Proteins function in the regulation of _____ _______ by helping maintain the proper types and amounts of fluids in each body compartment.
fluid balance
swelling do to an excess of in interstitial fluid is known as ______
edema
compounds that help keep a solution's acidity or alkalinity constant are called?
buffers
_______ are good buffers because all proteins contain acidic components and basic components
proteins
________ is when the blood gets to acidic or too many positive charges
acidosis
________ when the blood gets to alkaline or basic; too many negative charges.
alkalosis
Whenever plasma proteins act as buffers it is always _____ because you never have extra protein.
bad
proteins can be used as ________ of other substances like hemoglobin or lipoproteins.
transporters
______ are large proteins produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules.
antibodies
substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system are known as?
Antigens
______ is the #1 quantitative protein in the body and it is used for scar formation
collagen
what precent of AA are gluconeogenic or can be used for energy?
50
The constant degradation and synthesis of protein that occurs with in each cell is known as protein _______.
turnover
The supply of AAs derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulation blood is known as the?
Amino Acid Pool
Nitrogen _______ is the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given time period.
balance
Pregnant women and growing children have a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein synthesis.
positive
Starvation, stress, burns and trauma all cause a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein degradation.
negative
_______ is when AA are stripped of there nitrogen containing compounds
deamination
________ is caused by deamination, released into the blood stream, converted into urea and then excreted.
ammonia
_____ quality proteins that contain all the EAAs in relatively the same amount that human beings require.
high
What are the two factors that influence protein quality?
Digestibility and Amino Acid composition
_____ is a measure of the amount of AAs absorbed from a given protein intake.
Digestibility
EAA found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis is known as the ______ amino acid.
limiting
_____ protein is a standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured.
reference
The standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured (reference protein) is the EAA requirements of _________ aged children.
preschool
________ proteins are two or more dietary proteins whose AA assortments complement each other in such a way that the EAAs missing from one are supplied by the other
complementary
___ _____ ______ is A deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and overlapping conditions
Protein energy malnutrition
_____ PEM is recent severe food deprivation
acute
______ PEM is long-term food deprivaiton
chronic
____ or starvation: Form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation of, or impaired absorption of, energy, protein, vitamins, & minerals over a long time (chronic PEM)
marasmus
_____ is a Form of PEM that results either from a sudden/recent inadequate protein intake or, commonly, infection (acute PEM)
Kwashiorkor
edema, flaky paint dermatitis and the flag sign in hair are all signs of _______
Kwashiorkor
_____ is the collection of fluid in the abdomen
Ascities
_____ is the body's adaptation to starvation
Marasmus
_______ occurs when adaptation to starvation fails.
Kwashiorkor
what is the RDA for protein per G/KG per day
.8
what percentage of energy intake is recommended for protein _____ to ______.
10 35
Increasing protein consumption to >35% puts a strain on _________.
kidneys
_______ and diets low in total fat help vegetarians maintain healthier body weights.
fiber