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Proteins are compounds composed of?

carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen

Proteins are arranged into these chains?

Amino Acid

The human body contains an estimated _____ kinds of proteins

10,000 - 50,000

Protein is the only macronutrient to contain this element?


What suffix means nitrogen containing?


Some amino acids contain what other element?


What makes up proteins?

Amino Acids

What part of the amino acid structure contains a negarive charge and the Alkaline group?

Amino Group

What part of the amino acid structure contains the carboxyl group is acidic and contains a positive charge?

Acid Group

All AA's share common structures with different?

side groups

There are _____ common amino acids that may be classified into ___ groups based on structure.

20 7

What is the phrase used to remember the essential amino acids?

Harry watches TV TILL PM

What are the essential Amino Acids?

Histidine Tryptophan Valine Theronine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Phenylalanine Methionone

How many essential amino acids are there?


Essential amino acids must be obtained from your?


Nonessential amino acids can be produced in the?


Nonessential amino acids are also provide by _______ in foods


The condensation of 2 AA bonded together is known as a?


The condensation of 3 AA bonded together is known as a?


The condensation of 4-9 AA bonded together is known as a?


The condensation of 10 or more AA together is known as a?


a ____ _______ is a bond that connects the acid end of one AA with the amino end of another AA, forming a link in a protein chain.

Peptide Bond

Disulfide bridges formed by S atoms link _____ molecules together in Insulin


Each human AA sequence is unique with small _______ in body's proteins


Each human amino acid sequence is determined by ______


Instructions for making every protein is filed in the ______ with in each ____ _____

DNA Cell Nucleus

Errors that alter AA sequence/ mistakes made in copying genetic code is known as a?

sequencing error

Sickle-cell anemia is an example of a?

sequencing error

What shape of protein acts as a carrier protein?

hollow spheres

What shape of protein is strong ex. tendon

rod-like structures

What shape of protein contain other compounds?

folded globular polypeptide chains

A protein's _______ helps determine its function in the body.


when a cell makes a protein, the gene for that protein has been ________.


Switching genes on and off, without changing the genetic sequence, is known as ___________


when a protein is ________ or uncoiled it loses it shape and function


Denaturation is caused by what 6 main things?

Heat Acids Bases Alcohol Agitation Heavy Metals

In the stomach protein is broken down by pepsin and HCL into smaller _________.


In the small intestine and pancreas polypeptides are broken down by pancreatic and intestinal proteases into ______, ________ and ______ ______

tripeptides dipeptides amino acids

In the small intestine and pancreas peptides are broken down by intestinal tripeptidases and dipeptidases into _____ ______ and absorbed

amino acids

The major organ of protein digestion is the?


enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds are known as?


Enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds within the protein chain?


enzyme that cleaves the bonds at the chain end to release free AA?


______ ________ are the end products of protein hydrolysis.

amino acids

amino acids are transported from the small intestines to the liver via the?


Protein can be _______ material for growth and maintenance.


Proteins can act as an _______ which facilitates a specific reaction.


Proteins can act as a ______ which are chemical messengers secreted by the endocrine glands in response to altered conditions in the body


Proteins function in the regulation of _____ _______ by helping maintain the proper types and amounts of fluids in each body compartment.

fluid balance

swelling do to an excess of in interstitial fluid is known as ______


compounds that help keep a solution's acidity or alkalinity constant are called?


_______ are good buffers because all proteins contain acidic components and basic components


________ is when the blood gets to acidic or too many positive charges


________ when the blood gets to alkaline or basic; too many negative charges.


Whenever plasma proteins act as buffers it is always _____ because you never have extra protein.


proteins can be used as ________ of other substances like hemoglobin or lipoproteins.


______ are large proteins produced by the immune system in response to the invasion of the body by foreign molecules.


substances that elicit the formation of antibodies or an inflammation reaction from the immune system are known as?


______ is the #1 quantitative protein in the body and it is used for scar formation


what precent of AA are gluconeogenic or can be used for energy?


The constant degradation and synthesis of protein that occurs with in each cell is known as protein _______.


The supply of AAs derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulation blood is known as the?

Amino Acid Pool

Nitrogen _______ is the amount of nitrogen consumed as compared with the amount of nitrogen excreted in a given time period.


Pregnant women and growing children have a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein synthesis.


Starvation, stress, burns and trauma all cause a ______ nitrogen balance which causes more protein degradation.


_______ is when AA are stripped of there nitrogen containing compounds


________ is caused by deamination, released into the blood stream, converted into urea and then excreted.


_____ quality proteins that contain all the EAAs in relatively the same amount that human beings require.


What are the two factors that influence protein quality?

Digestibility and Amino Acid composition

_____ is a measure of the amount of AAs absorbed from a given protein intake.


EAA found in the shortest supply relative to the amounts needed for protein synthesis is known as the ______ amino acid.


_____ protein is a standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured.


The standard against which the quality of other proteins is measured (reference protein) is the EAA requirements of _________ aged children.


________ proteins are two or more dietary proteins whose AA assortments complement each other in such a way that the EAAs missing from one are supplied by the other


___ _____ ______ is A deficiency of protein, energy, or both, including kwashiorkor, marasmus, and overlapping conditions

Protein energy malnutrition

_____ PEM is recent severe food deprivation


______ PEM is long-term food deprivaiton


____ or starvation: Form of PEM that results from a severe deprivation of, or impaired absorption of, energy, protein, vitamins, & minerals over a long time (chronic PEM)


_____ is a Form of PEM that results either from a sudden/recent inadequate protein intake or, commonly, infection (acute PEM)


edema, flaky paint dermatitis and the flag sign in hair are all signs of _______


_____ is the collection of fluid in the abdomen


_____ is the body's adaptation to starvation


_______ occurs when adaptation to starvation fails.


what is the RDA for protein per G/KG per day


what percentage of energy intake is recommended for protein _____ to ______.

10 35

Increasing protein consumption to >35% puts a strain on _________.


_______ and diets low in total fat help vegetarians maintain healthier body weights.


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