Spain ID Quiz 1
Terms in this set (35)
East Germanic Tribe, one of two main branches of the Goths. They were ruled by Iberian Peninsula since the beginning of the 5th century. Feudal elective monarchy. Third Council of Toledo (589) called by King Reccared, renounced Aryanism and embraced Catholicism. System in crisis by the end of the 7th century.
Visigothic King of Hispania, Septimania and Galicia. His reign marked a climactic shift in history, with the king's renunciation of traditional Arianism in favor of Catholic Christianity in 587
referring to the descendants of Jewish settlers, originally from the Near East, who lived in the Iberian Peninsula until the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy, or would otherwise define themselves in terms of Jewish customs and traditions from the Iberian Peninsula. Accordingly, the term Sephardic Jew refers to Jews who follow Sephardic Halakha.
name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity, unlike Moriscos who had converted. It also denotes a style of Iberian architecture and decoration, particularly of Aragon and Castile, of the 12th to 16th centuries, strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship
were Iberian Christians who lived under Arab Islamic rule in Al-Andalus. Their descendants remained unconverted to Islam, but did however adopt elements of Arabic language and culture. They were mostly Roman Catholics of the Visigothic or Mozarabic Rite
The energy of the Reconquest. Economic expansion: wool export. A culture imbued in military values: honor, loyalt, respect, duty, integrity. Strong nobility. Value of strong leadership. Castile had a solid urban network.
Main region: Catalonia with Barcelona as major urban center. Outward oriented: Moment of expansion 13-14th centuries. Constitutional tradition: Cortes of Aragon. In crisis due to internal divisions and European medieval decline.
Battle of Guadalete
was fought in 711 or 712 at an unidentified location between the Christian Visigoths of Hispania under their king, Roderic, and an invading force of Muslim Arabs and Berbers under Ṭāriq ibn Ziyad. The battle was significant as the culmination of a series of Arab-Berber attacks and the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Hispania. In the battle Roderic probably lost his life, along with many members of the Visigothic nobility, opening the way for the capture of Visigothic capital of Toledo.
the medieval Muslim inhabitants of Morocco, western Algeria, Western Sahara, Mauritania, the Iberian Peninsula, Septimania, Sicily and Malta. The Moors called their Iberian territory Al-Andalus, an area comprising Gibraltar, much of what is now Spain and Portugal, and part of France. There was also a Moorish presence in present-day southern Italy after they occupied Mazara in 827 until their last settlement of Lucera was destroyed in 1300. The religious difference of the Moorish Muslims led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe called the Reconquista. The Fall of Granada in 1492 saw the end of the Muslim presence in Iberia.
also known as the Moorish Iberia, was a medieval Muslim state in parts of what are today Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, and France. The name more generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors), at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly in wars with Christian kingdoms.
Caliphate of Cordoba
ruled the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) and part of North Africa from the Islamic Qurtuba (Córdoba) city. This period was characterized by remarkable successes in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Iberia were constructed during this period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba.
Abd Al-Rahman I
was the founder of the Umayyad Emirate of Córdoba (755), a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). The Muslims called the regions of Iberia under their dominion al-Andalus. Abd al-Rahman's establishment of a government in al-Andalus represented a branching from the rest of the Islamic Empire, which had been brought under the Abbasid following the overthrow of the Umayyads from Damascus in 750.
is a centuries-long period in the Middle Ages in which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in conquering the Iberian Peninsula from the Islamic kingdoms collectively known as Al-Andalus.
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (1043-1099) was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. He was called El Cid (the Lord) by the Moors and El Campeador (the Champion) by Christians. He is the national hero of Spain.
Council of the Mesta
society composed of all sheep raisers of Castile formally recognized by Alfonso X in 1273. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Mesta envolved into the central institution that controlled and promoted sheep raising.
A tradition in late antiquity held that the apostles divided up the world into territories to be evangelized, with Spain falling to St. James. In the 9th century a Galician monk announced that a star had led him to a field where he found the remains of the saint. This "field of the star" became the city of Compostela (Campus Stelae), one of the most important medieval pilgrimage destinations.
Ferdinand of Aragon
the king of Castile and Aragon who ruled jointly with his wife Isabella; his marriage to Isabella I in 1469 marked the beginning of the modern state of Spain and their capture of Granada from the Moors in 1492 united Spain as one country; they instituted the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 and supported the expedition of Christopher Columbus in 1492 (1452-1516)
Isabella of Castile
Queen of Castile (1474-1504). Her marriage in 1469 to Ferdinand V of Castile and León (later Ferdinand II of Aragon) marked the beginning of a unified Spanish state. Isabella sponsored the voyages of Christopher Columbus.
Hernán Cortés was a Spanish explorer who is famous mainly for his march across Mexico and his conquering of the Aztec Empire in Mexico. He brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings in the Iberian Peninsula, which first governed in Castile beginning in 1369 before expanding its rule into Aragón, Navarre and Naples. They were an illegitimate cadet line of the House of Burgundy.
War of Granada
was a series of military campaigns between 1482 and 1492, during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty's Emirate of Granada. It ended with the defeat of Granada and its annexation by Castile, ending Islamic rule, Al-Andalus, on the Iberian peninsula and completing the Reconquista.
Civil War for Castilian Succession
was the military conflict contested from 1475 to 1479 for the succession of the Crown of Castile fought between the supporters of Joanna la Beltraneja, daughter of the late monarch Henry IV of Castile, and those of Henry's half sister, Isabella, who was ultimately successful
Joanne of Castile (Beltraneja)
was a princess and claimant to the throne of Castile. She was also Queen consort of Portugal and Queen of Henry IV of Castile.
The Santa Hermandad
was a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, which became characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile.
Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII, was the twenty-second and last Nasrid ruler of Granada in Iberia. He was also called el chico, the little, or el zogoybi, the unfortunate. Son of Abu l-Hasan Ali, sultan of the Emirate of Granada, he was proclaimed sultan in 1482 in place of his father, who was driven from the land.
caused by King Philip II repressive decree. The war decimated the Alpujarras mariscos.
was a tribunal established in 1481 by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the Medieval Inquisition which was under Papal control. It became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition.
were originally Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or been forced to convert to Christianity, some of whom may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret. The term came into later use in 1492 with the Castilian Alhambra Decree, reversing protections originally in the Treaty of Granada (1491).
was an edict issued on 31 March 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon (not from the Kingdom of Navarre) and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The edict was formally revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second Vatican Council.
Act of Faith (Auto de Fe)
was the ritual of public penance of condemned heretics and apostates that took place when the Spanish Inquisition or the Portuguese Inquisition had decided their punishment, followed by the execution by the civil authorities of the sentences imposed.
Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros
was a Spanish cardinal and statesman. Starting from humble beginnings he rose to the heights of power becoming a religious reformer, twice regent of Spain, Cardinal, Grand Inquisitor, missionary of the Moors, promoted the Crusades in North Africa, and founded the Complutense University. Known for the first print polyglot of the entire Bible.
was a declaration written in 1513 by the Spanish monarchy of its divinely ordained right to take possession of the territories of the New World and to subjugate, exploit, and fight the native inhabitants during the time of imperialism.
was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556. Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against France which, although enormously expensive, were militarily successful.
one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and Spanish Empire and several other countries.
Revolt of the Comuneros
was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels controlled the heart of Castile, ruling the cities of Valladolid, Tordesillas, and Toledo.