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Public Speaking FINAL JCJC
Terms in this set (104)
Questions of Fact
Persuasive speech that addresses whether something is true or not.
Questions of Value
Persuasive speech that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action, or belief.
Questions of Policy
Persuasive speech that addresses the best course of action or the best solution to a problem.
Credibility before the speaker speaks
Credibility formed during the speech
Credibility formed at the end of the speech.
Appealing to the audience through credibility, personality, competence, and character of the speaker.
Generating emotional appeal. The use of emotional language, development of vivid examples, and speaking with sincerity and conviction.
Appealing to the audience through logic and evidence.
Introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
Attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
Forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
Assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
Assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
A mistaken belief based on an unsound argument.
Attention- catch the audience's interest so they take notice of an issue.
Need- identify the need for a change, meaning a problem that can be solved
Satisfaction- show how their "need" can be "satisfied"
Visualization- describes the benefits that will result from the audience's need being satisfied
Action- state exactly what the audience should do
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
Reasoning that uses specific instances; moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
Reasoning that moves from a general statement of principle to specific certain conclusion
Seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects
Speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second
Communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, events, places and people, objects, or concepts.
Type of informative speech that describes how something is done, how something comes to be what it is, or how something works
Type of informative speech that describes or explains significant, interesting, or unusual occurrences.
Places and People
Type of informative speech that describes or explains significant, interesting, or unusual places or people.
Type of informative speech about anything tangible.
Type of informative speech about an abstraction, something you cannot perceive with your senses, such as an idea, theory, principle worldview, or belief.
Speaking to enhance understanding
Speaking to maintain interest
Speaking to be remembered
Three Goals of Informative Speaking
Objects, models, handouts, photographs, drawings, posterboards, videos, powerpoints, etc.
Types of visual aids
Type of visual aid that summarizes large blocks of information in list form
Type of visual aid that shows statistical information
-Prepare in advance
-Keep it simple
-Make large enough
-Use simple fonts, and limit the number of fonts used
-Use color effectively
-Avoid using whiteboard/chalkboard
-Display visuals where audience can see them clearly
-Avoid passing visuals among the audience
-Display visuals only while discussing them
-Talk to the audience, not the visual
-Explain visuals clearly and concisely
-Practice with your visuals
What are some guidelines for preparing visual aids
Literal or Dictionary meaning of words
Meaning suggested by association or emotions triggered by words or phrases.
Type of word that refers to tangible objects
Refers to ideas or concepts
Visually descriptive or figurative language.
A comparison between two similar things using like or as
A comparison between two similar things.
Giving human characteristic to non-human things
Creates patterns using stressed and unstressed syllables in a phrase.
Arranging words to have identical structure
Repeating keywords or key phrases
Repetition of particular consonant sounds
Placing words or phrases in contrast or opposition to one another
Phrases that help the speaker move from one idea to the next
Details what the speaker plans to discuss next
Summarizes a point the speaker has already discussed
Highlights an important idea
Type of speech design that reflects your major points
Comparative Speech Design
Type of speech that explores similarities and differences
Spatial Speech Design
Creating an oral map
Sequential Speech Design
Chronological Speech Design
Order in which an event occurred
Causation Speech Design
Problem/Solution Speech Design
Focuses attention on a problem and proceeds to suggest solutions for this problem
Refutative Speech Design
Defends a disputed thesis and confronts opposing views with reasoning and evidence
Narrative Speech Design
Tells a story
A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation. States specific and general purpose and identifies central idea.
Keyword Outline/Speaking Outline
A brief outline used to jog the speaker's memory during the presentation.
Type of example references a specific case in passing
Type of example that is a story or narrative
Type of example that is an imaginary or fictitious situation.
A numerical summary of facts, figures, and research findings
Type of statistic that is the average of a group of numbers
Type of statistic that is the middle number in a series/set of numbers arranged in rank order.
Type of statistic that is the number that appears most often in a set of numbers
Opinions or observations of others
Recognized expert/authority on a subject
People with the first hand experience (ordinary people)
Your own opinions or observations
The speaker's intention: to persuade, to inform, to entertain, etc.
The speaker's goal or what the response the speaker wishes to evoke.
A way to help come up with a speech topic. Interest charts/categories and media/internet prompts are ways of doing this.
Changes customary patterns of thinking to encourage creative exploration.
Using questions often employed by journalists to explore topic possibilities for speeches (who, what, when, where, why, how?)
-Question the audience
-Tell a story
-Startle the Audience
-State an unusual fact
-Refer to the occasion or historical event
Types of attention getters
Parts of the Introduction
One complete sentence explaining exactly what you plan on discussing
Explains your own knowledge or expertise on the subject. Explain why you chose this topic.
States main points (no more than 4) in the introduction before moving on to the body of the speech.
Speaking on the spur of the moment in response to an unpredictable situation with little time for preparation
A speech that is carefully prepared and practiced, but it is not written down or memorized.
Speeches that are committed to memory and said word for word.
Speech read from a prepared text or telograph
Communication achieved by using eye contact, facial expressions, movement, and gestures.
The study of how people use space during communication
Principle of proxemics involving the control of space that separates the audience from the speaker
Principle of proxemics dealing with power relationships when a speaker stands above that audience.
Position of the human voice on a scale ranging from low and deep to high and shrill
The vocal level at which people speak most frequently
The level at which people can produce their strongest voice with minimal effort and that allows variation up and down the musical scale.
Speed at which words are uttered
Filler words such as "um", "uh", etc.
The manner in which individual speech sounds are created
The manner in which individual words are articulated and produced in context
The use of correct sounds and of proper stress syllables when saying words
A speech pattern associated with an area of the country or with a cultural or ethnic background
The tendency of any nation, race, religion, or group to believe that its way of looking at and doing things is the right and that other perspectives are wrong.
Speech communication begins with what?
Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else
The means by which a message is communicated
The person who receives the communicated message
The messages the audiences sends to the speaker either verbally or through body language
Anything that impedes the communication of a message.
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