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137 terms

*Psychology Experience Psychology Ch. 5 and 2 others

1. Learning ____.
A. involves a systematic change
B. involves a relatively permanent change in behavior
C. is central to behaviorist theories
D. All of the above
2. ______ is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.
A. Psychoanalysis
B. Behaviorism
C. Humanism
D. A mindset
3. The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of ______.
A. thoughts
B. wishes and fantasies
C. behavioral change
D. inner feelings
4. According to the principles of behaviorism, ______.
A. learning is defined as a relatively stable and observable change in behavior
B. the principles of learning are the same for both animals and humans
C. mental activities (e.g., thinking, wishing, and hoping) are of little importance, in comparison to observable behaviors
D. All of these
5. Classical and operant conditioning involve learning through ______, whereas observational learning involves learning through ______.
A. observation and imitation / association
B. conscious behaviors / unconscious behaviors
C. association / observation and imitation
D. conscious thoughts / unconscious thoughts
6. Organisms learn about the consequences of behavior through _____.
A. classical conditioning
B. operant conditioning
C. latent learning
D. discovery learning
7. Your psychology assignment is to observe and list any behaviors of your relatives that indicate learning. Which of the following should be included on your list?
A. Your sister bumps into a door when she has a high fever.
B. Your father falls asleep watching TV.
C. Your little brother whines whenever he wants something.
D. Your mother forgets her keys.
8. Lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it. Thus, when we see lightning, we often anticipate that we will hear thunder soon afterward. This is an example of _____.
A. classical conditioning
B. observational learning
C. operant conditioning
D. stimulus experience
9. Organisms learn the association between two stimuli through _____. Organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence through ______.
A. operant conditioning; classical conditioning
B. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
C. classical conditioning; discovery learning
D. observational learning; classical conditioning
10. Miranda is learning how to play tennis. For her first lesson, her instructor models serving and backhand returns while Miranda patiently watches. Miranda then tries to imitate the sequence of swings and motions made by her instructor. Which of the following concepts best describes how Miranda is learning to play tennis?
A. Operant conditioning
B. Classical conditioning
C. Observational learning
D. Latent learning
11. The cliché "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" best reflects which of the following types of learning?
A. Operant conditioning
B. Classical conditioning
C. Observational learning
D. Latent learning
12. In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is unlearned, but the _____ connection is learned.
13. You feel fine at the picnic until a spider very similar to the one that bit you last year and made you sick starts to walk onto your picnic blanket. This reaction is most likely a(n) _____.
14. Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n) _____.
15. Pavlov's dog automatically salivated to food because food is a(n) _____.
16. Salivating at the presentation of food is an example of ______.
A. latent learning
B. a learned response
C. a reflex
D. insight learning
17. Which of the following is the best example of an innate stimulus-response connection?
A. Throwing a temper tantrum
B. Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper
C. Raising your hand before asking a question in a classroom setting
D. Learning to ride a bike by watching your older brother do so
18. A father takes his baby out for a walk. The baby reaches over to touch a pink flower and is stung by a bumblebee sitting on the petals. The next day, the baby's mother brings home some pink flowers. She removes a flower from the arrangement and takes it over for her baby to smell. The baby cries loudly as soon as she sees it. According to the principles of classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus in this example?
A. The baby's crying
B. The father
C. The mother
D. The pink flower
19. Before the bell was ever presented, Pavlov's dog salivated each time food was presented. The ______ in this situation is salivation.
A. unconditioned response
B. conditioned stimulus
C. unconditioned stimulus
D. conditioned response
20. Pavlov's dog salivated to the sound of a bell because _____.
A. the bell had become a reflex
B. the bell had become a CR
C. the bell had become associated with food
D. the bell had become a reinforcer for food
21. In Pavlov's classic study on classical conditioning, the bell was the _____ before conditioning and the _____ after conditioning had occurred.
A. conditioned stimulus /neutral stimulus
B. neutral stimulus /unconditioned stimulus
C. neutral stimulus / conditioned stimulus
D. neutral stimulus / reinforcer stimulus
22. The first phase of classical conditioning in which the UCS and CS are paired repeatedly until the CS alone generates a CR is called _____.
A. generalization
B. spontaneous recovery
C. extinction
D. acquisition
23. The extent to which the CS and UCS occur close together in time reflects _____.
A. contiguity
B. contingency
C. generalization
D. discrimination
24. ______ involves teaching a person to distinguish the difference between the original conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
A. Generalization
B. Discrimination
C. Spontaneous recovery
D. Latent learning
25. Little Albert was conditioned by John Watson to fear a white rat. Eventually, however, Albert became fearful of any stimulus that looked white and furry. He became scared not only of rats, but also of rabbits, and even Santa Claus's beard. This phenomenon is called _____.
A. extinction
B. acquisition
C. generalization
D. spontaneous recovery
26. Pavlov's dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now, however, after several trials of salivating to the bell and NOT receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened?
A. The dog realizes that the bell isn't food.
B. Extinction has occurred.
C. Generalization has occurred.
D. Spontaneous recovery wasn't triggered.
27. Marcia is romantically involved with John, the "love of her life." Unfortunately, Marcia eventually discovers that John is a complete jerk, and she ends the relationship. One day in the mall, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne that John always wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. The sudden onset of good feelings triggered by the cologne is an example of _____.
A. emotional amnesia
B. spontaneous recovery
C. discrimination learning
D. contingency learning
28. Mark's dog, Gus, sits whenever he says, "Sit." Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark each time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus sits. The dog's behavior is an example of ______.
A. generalization
B. habituation
C. contiguous occurrences
D. contingent occurrences
29. _____ occurs when the conditioned response dissipates after the anticipated reward is withheld.
A. Spontaneous recovery
B. Generalization
C. Insight learning
D. Extinction
30. Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in little Albert.
A. a loud noise
B. fire
C. a white rat
D. a rabbit
31. In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor, the baby was conditioned to fear a white rat. In this study, the UCS was _____.
A. the white rat
B. a loud noise
C. the researchers
D. a sealskin coat
32. In John Watson's little Albert experiment, the white rat was the ______ and the loud noise was the ______.
A. conditioned stimulus / unconditioned stimulus
B. unconditioned stimulus / conditioned response
C. conditioned response / conditioned stimulus
D. unconditioned response / unconditioned stimulus
33. _____ is a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response.
A. Instinctive drift
B. Discovery learning
C. Expectancy learning
D. Counterconditioning
34. ______ is one type of counterconditioning.
A. Insight learning
B. Latent learning
C. Systematic desensitization
D. Expectancy learning
35. Which of the following statements about classical conditioning is FALSE?
A. Classical conditioning can involve learning without awareness.
B. Classical conditioning can produce immunosuppression.
C. Drug habituation can be explained by classical conditioning.
D. Classical conditioning is based on observing and imitating others.
36. Robert drank too much tequila last night. He spent much of this morning vomiting and nauseated. According to the principles of classical conditioning, how will Robert likely react today when he tastes or smells the tequila bottle that he drank out of last night?
A. He will feel happy about what a great time he had last night.
B. He will want to drink more tequila right away.
C. He will find the scent and taste of tequila aversive.
D. He will invite all of his friends over that night for another party.
37. Taste aversion is a real-life example of which of the following types of learning?
A. Insight learning
B. Classical conditioning
C. Observational learning
D. Latent learning
38. Leonard is a heroin addict. He is very careful about overdosing. He typically shoots up in his basement apartment, but is now at a friend's house and needs a fix really badly. He's never done drugs at his friend's house before, but he's desperate. He injects his normal "safe" dosage of heroin but almost dies of an overdose. According to the principles of classical conditioning, what happened?
A. Leonard's friend switched his drugs in order to teach him not to use drugs by switching his UCS with his CS.
B. The effect of the heroin was increased because Leonard injected it in a strange environment and his body could not use the stimuli in his basement to prepare for it.
C. Leonard's drug tolerance had reached its limits and his UCS was confounded with his CS and UCR.
D. Leonard took his dose too soon and his body already had too much.
39. Watching TV, you can see how advertisers cunningly apply classical conditioning principles to consumers by showing ads that pair something pleasant with a product in hopes that you, the viewer, will experience those positive feelings toward the product. In this situation the product is the _____.
A. unconditioned response
B. conditioned response
C. unconditioned stimulus
D. conditioned stimulus
40. in operant conditioning _____.
A. the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior
B. the consequences of behavior is the CR to environmental stimuli
C. behavior is controlled by the environment
D. behavior is a consequence of the CS
41. According to Thorndike's law of effect _____.
A. species-specific biological predispositions favor some learning styles over others
B. behaviors followed by desirable outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by undesirable outcomes are weakened
C. negative behaviors can be easily extinguished through classical conditioning
D. an organism will recover a previously conditioned response when placed in a novel context.
42. Which of the following statements about B.F. Skinner is FALSE?
A. Skinner conducted many of his studies with animals as opposed to human subjects.
B. Skinner made every effort to study organisms under precisely controlled conditions.
C. Skinner believed that the mechanisms of learning among humans are different than the mechanisms of learning among animals.
D. During World War II, Skinner carried out an unusual study that involved a pigeon-guided missile.
43. Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. You, however, a psychology student, quickly surmise that the bears had been through an extensive _____ program.
A. fear extinction
B. discrimination
C. secondary reinforcement
D. operant conditioning
44. ______ refers to rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.
A. Generalization
B. Extinction
C. Contiguity
D. Shaping
45. Reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavioral response. ______ involves the presentation of a desired stimulus, whereas _____ involves the removal of an undesired stimulus.
A. Positive reinforcement / negative reinforcement
B. Negative reinforcement / positive reinforcement
C. Reinforcement / punishment
D. Punishment / Reinforcement
46. Whenever Baby Nimo cries, his mother picks him up. From a behaviorist perspective, picking up Baby Nimo whenever he cries _____.
A. is a negative reinforcer for Nimo for crying
B. is a positive reinforcer for Nimo's mother for picking him up.
C. is a positive reinforcer for Nimo for crying
D. will have no effect on his crying behavior because Baby Nimo is too young to be aware of associative contingencies
47. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A. Going shopping after getting a B on a difficult exam
B. Waking up a few seconds BEFORE your alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound
C. Denying yourself a special treat after a bad exam performance
D. Exercising less after running a mini marathon
48. In ______, the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the removal of something unpleasant.
A. positive reinforcement
B. negative reinforcement
C. punishment
D. classical conditioning
49. Which of the following is the best example of negative reinforcement?
A. Chase's mom spanked him for hitting his little brother. Chase now hits his brother less frequently.
B. Jeremy's mom grounded him for not doing his homework. Now he rarely forgets to complete his assignments on time.
C. Abby's dad kept nagging her to clean her room. She eventually complied and did what her father wanted in order get her dad to stop nagging.
D. Chad's new teacher gives him a prize box toy for every five books that he reads. He now reads more frequently than he used to.
50. Positive punishment _____. Negative reinforcement _____.
A. weakens behaviors / strengthens behaviors
B. weakens behaviors / weakens behaviors
C. strengthens behaviors / strengthens behaviors
D. strengthens behaviors / weakens behaviors
51. Kim is surprised and frustrated to find that her son's misbehavior actually increases when she yells at him. In operant terms, _____.
A. Kim should resort to corporal punishment, as scolding is not working
B. yelling is serving as a positive punisher instead of a negative punisher
C. yelling is serving as a negative reinforcer instead of a negative punisher
D. yelling is reinforcing the misbehaviors
52. Positive and negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of the behavior occurring again. Positive and negative punishment _____ the likelihood of the behavior occurring again.
A. increase / increase
B. decrease / increase
C. decrease / decrease
D. increase / decrease
53. A reinforcer that is innately satisfying and does not require any learning to be perceived of as pleasurable is a __________ reinforcer.
A. primary
B. secondary
C. conditioned
D. classical
54. A reinforcer that acquires its positive value through experience is a(n) ___________ reinforcer.
A. primary
B. secondary
C. conditioned
D. unconditioned
55. Which of the following is the best example of a primary reinforcer?
A. Praise
B. Money
C. Food
D. Attention
56. ______ is considered a secondary reinforcer.
A. Food
B. Water
C. Money
D. Sexual satisfaction
57. Although behaviorists maintain that the principles of learning are the same for all species, _____.
A. secondary reinforcers are likely to be more effective with animals than with humans
B. secondary reinforcers are likely to be more effective with humans than with animals
C. primary reinforcers are likely to be more effective with humans than with animals
D. primary reinforcers are likely to be less effective with animals
58. Bubba, a very smart German shepherd, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they're grilling, they will throw him a treat. However, his owner, Paul, does not want Bubba to eat "people" food so does not allow Bubba to eat treats from the neighbor. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant conditioning principles, Bubba is demonstrating that he can _____.
A. generalize
B. substitute secondary reinforcers when primary reinforcers are not available
C. learn a partial-reinforcement schedule
D. discriminate
59. Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a doggie biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. Matt used _____ schedule first, and then _____ schedule to train Buster.
A. a continuous-reinforcement / a fixed-ratio
B. a fixed-ratio / a continuous-reinforcement
C. a variable-interval / a fixed-interval
D. a continuous-reinforcement / a fixed-interval
60. A hitchhiker most likely gets rides on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
A. continuous
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-ratio
D. fixed-interval
61. Carol gives her dog, Cutie Pie, a treat each time Cutie Pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.
A. continuous-reinforcement
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-interval
D. variable-interval
62. Fred's parents are very inconsistent with their childrearing rules. Most of the time Fred can climb on the furniture but sometimes he is punished. Fred's parents can't understand why he isn't a better-behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a _____.
A. fixed-ratio schedule
B. fixed-interval schedule
C. partial-reinforcement schedule
D. continuous-reinforcement schedule
63. A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?
A. Fixed-interval
B. Variable-ratio
C. Continuous-ratio
D. Fixed-ratio
64. The ______ schedule of reinforcement is the most resistant to extinction.
A. variable-interval
B. fixed-interval
C. fixed-ratio
D. variable-ratio
65. Slot machines reward an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.
A. fixed-ratio
B. variable-ratio
C. fixed-interval
D. variable-interval
66. Random pop quizzes occur on a _____ schedule.
A. variable-ratio
B. fixed-interval
C. variable-interval
D. fixed-ratio
67. Jose's employer pays him every other Friday. This is an example of which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
A. Variable-ratio
B. Fixed-interval
C. Variable-interval
D. Fixed-ratio
68. Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective _____.
A. negative reinforcer
B. negative punisher
C. conditioner
D. positive punisher
69. Spanking is a form of _____; time out is a form of _____.
A. negative punishment / positive punishment
B. positive reinforcement / negative reinforcement
C. positive punishment / negative punishment
D. positive reinforcement / positive punishment
70. Larry is grounded each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being grounded, Larry's misbehavior toward his little brother decreases. Grounding Larry is an example of _____.
A. positive punishment
B. negative punishment
C. negative reinforcement
D. positive reinforcement
71. The most frequent responses cited in your text as to why parents use physical punishment with their children are ______.
A. the child needs strong discipline and the parent had been spanked as a child
B. the parent had been spanked as a child and the child needs to learn respect for parents
C. the child is "bad" and needs to be punished and the parent had been spanked as a child
D. the child is "bad" and needs to be punished and the child needs to learn respect for the parent's rules
72. Applied behavior analysis is based on the concept of _____.
A. classical conditioning
B. observational learning
C. latent learning
D. operant conditioning
73. Applied behavior analysis (behavior modification) programs rely on what principles of learning to help people develop programs to change?
A. Classical
B. Operant
C. Insight
D. Observational
74. Your psychology professor wants to help students learn how to write a high-quality research paper, so she posts an example of an A paper on the course website. You use this example as a model when writing your own paper. Which of the following concepts best describes how you learned to write your research paper?
A. Classical conditioning
B. Operant conditioning
C. Observational learning
D. Insight learning
75. According to Bandura's model of observational learning, what are the four primary processes involved in observational learning?
A. Attention, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement
B. Attention, retention, generalization, and discrimination
C. Acquisition, extinction, generalization, and discrimination
D. Unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
76. According to Bandura's model of observational learning, which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?
A. Attention
B. Motor reproduction
C. Replication
D. Reinforcement
77. Which of the following is (are) associated with Bandura's model of observational learning?
B. Reward, punishment
C. Discrimination, extinction
D. Retention, motor reproduction
78. According to Tolman's views on purposive learning, _____.
A. Peter was afraid of the rabbit, because fear of rabbits was a high-probability reaction
B. you failed high school algebra because you didn't understand the S-R relationships
C. you work hard all week because you expect to get paid on Friday
D. Skinner's view on learning was too restrictive
79. According to Tolman, the concept of _____ is essential to understanding classical conditioning.
A. rewards
B. punishment
C. expectancy
D. preparedness
80. Latent learning is _____.
A. learning that is not demonstrated until one is motivated to perform the behavior
B. based on insight
C. highly susceptible to extinction
D. best explained by the concept of instinctive drift
81. One day, on the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you'd passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway and realize that it could be used as an alternate route to and from work. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route and you remember the side street alternate route. You happily take this route home. This is an example of _____.
A. discrimination learning
B. latent learning
C. operant learning
D. associative learning
82. The phenomenon of latent learning provides support for ______.
A. discrimination learning
B. purposive learning
C. associative learning
D. operant learning
83. Tolman demonstrated that rats can learn to run a maze correctly even though they were never reinforced for successfully running through it. This demonstrated the phenomenon of _____.
A. latent learning
B. vicarious reinforcement
C. insight learning
D. trial and error learning
84. ______ is defined as a type of learning that occurs without reinforcement. However, this learning is not demonstrated until the person or animal is reinforced to do so.
A. Classical conditioning
B. Insight learning
C. Latent learning
D. Instinctive drift
85. Which of the following is an example of instinctive drift?
A. A rat learns to run a maze for a cheese food reward instead of a peanut butter reward.
B. A raccoon learns to play basketball in a swimming pool instead of a stream.
C. A pigeon learns to guide a warhead to its target.
D. A pig shoves an object on the ground instead of learning to carry it in his mouth.
86. __________ is the species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.
A. Instinctive drift
B. Instinctive learning
C. Preparedness
D. Conceptualization
87. When instinctive biological tendencies overwhelm the strength of reinforcement, ______ has occurred.
A. insight learning
B. instinctive drift
C. expectancy learning
D. latent learning
88. Taste aversion is an adaptive behavior and it helps explain what biological constraint on learning?
A. Instinctive drift
B. Preparedness
C. Insight
D. Latency
89. In Germany and Sweden, it is illegal for parents to spank their children. However, parents in the United States and Canada are among those who are the most favorably disposed toward corporal punishment. This finding illustrates how sociocultural influences _____.
A. can affect the degree to which specific learning processes are used
B. can affect the content of learning programs
C. can prevent learning of cultural-specific contiguities
D. affect the development of psychological preparedness
90. According to Dweck's research, what can you do to develop a growth mindset?
A. Understand that intelligence and thinking skills are not fixed but can change.
B. Become passionate about learning and challenging your mind.
C. Think about the growth mindsets of people you admire.
D. All of these
changes like an increase in height or size of the brain are a kind of changes controlled by the genetic blueprint.
conditioned response
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.
stimulus generalization
the tendency to response to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
the dissapearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus
learning said to be a relatively permanent change?
when people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they've learned.
watson's experiment with little albert demonstrate?
phobias can be learned
conditioned emotional response?
emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli such as a hear of dogs or the emotional reaction.
Conditioned taste aversions?
development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, only after once.
Thorndike was known for his work with what?
Law of Effect, laws of learning voluntary responses
What was the Law of Effect?
if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. if an action is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
Skinner box
"operant conditioning chamber" placing a rat into one of these chambers and training it to push down on a bar to get food.
Primary & secondary reinforcer
primary: any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need such as hungry or thirst.
Secondary: becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer such as praise or tokens.
any event or object that when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.
punishment by application
the punishment of response by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus.
the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
form of biofeedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control. ex: brainwaves or brain activity.
insight learning
the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly. ex: monkey using stick to get food, a sudden "ah ha" moment or a coming together of elements to a problem.
learned helplessness
the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
Observational Learning
learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes as a result of practice or experience is called _____.
The learning of an association between an environmental stimulus and a behavioral response is known as _____.
If a mother acts upset and fearful when exposed to a particular ethnic group, it is likely that her child will learn to be upset when exposed to the same ethnic group. This is an example of how prejudice is acquired through _____.
operant conditioning
_____ conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.
Any stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning is a(n) _____.
unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive response.
bell; meat powder; salivation
A(n) _____ is an unlearned reaction evoked by a stimulus without any learning.
unconditioned response
A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest is called _____.
a neutral stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned response is now called a(n) _____.
conditioned stimulus
Ten days in a row Frank felt a static electric shock when he kissed his wife on the living room carpet. Now he feels mildly anxious whenever he approaches his wife to kiss her. In classical conditioning, his wife was a(n) _____ stimulus ten days ago, and has now become a(n) _____ stimulus.
neutral; conditioned
Which of the following develops gradually during the course of conditioning?
A(n) _____ is a learned reaction to a previously neutral stimulus due to repeated pairings.
conditioned response
A Vietnam veteran experiences an intense emotional reaction to a clap of thunder. His emotional response is an example of a(n) _____.
Which of the following is an example of the use of classical conditioning in everyday life?
A) Treating alcoholism with a drug that causes nausea when alcohol is consumed
B) The use of seductive women to sell cars to men
C) Politicians learn that associating themselves with home, family, babies, and the American flag
D) all of these options
D) all of these options
In John Watson's demonstration of classical conditioning with little Albert, the unconditioned STIMULUS was _____.
a loud noise
A conditioned emotional response is an emotion that is _____.
evoked by a previously neutral stimulus
Wartime propaganda often depicts the enemy as ugly, cruel, and somewhat less than human. This type of propaganda creates _____ toward the enemy.
a negative conditioned emotional response
Most phobias are explained by _____.
classical conditioning
Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences is called _____.
operant conditioning
Consequences are a critical element in _____ conditioning.
An event that increases the probability that a response will be repeated is called _____.
An event that decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated is called _____.
Generally, classical conditioning is _____; operant conditioning is _____.
passive; active
Reinforcement and punishment are defined in terms of _____.
whether they increase or decrease responses that follow
Which of the following is an example of Thorndike's law of effect?
A) A chicken keeps poking a bar with its beak even though it is repeatedly shocked immediately afterwards.
B) A teenage driver stops speeding when his father makes him start paying for his own speeding tickets.
C) A ball keeps rolling downhill because of the pull of gravity.
D) A cat keeps clawing the sofa despite being squirted with water every time it does this.
A teenage driver stops speeding when his father makes him start paying for his own speeding tickets.
Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A) Pavlov: classical conditioning
B) Thorndike: law of effect
C) Skinner: reinforcement
D) all of these options are correctly matched
D) all of these options are correctly matched
Eli's grandma gives him a Tootsie Roll every time she visits. After enough times of receiving a Tootsie Roll, Eli's mouth begins to water when he sees his grandma arriving. In this example of classical conditioning, the Tootsie Roll is the __________________, and the mouthwatering reaction is the __________________________.
conditioned stimulus; conditioned response
Your dog is begging for food while you eat dinner. Your Mother gives him a morsel from her plate, and he stops barking. In this situation, your dog has been _____________, and you Mother has been ________________.
positively reinforced; negatively reinforced