Terms in this set (20)
What were reasons for westward migration? (Manifest Destiny)
Access to natural and mineral resources, economic opportunities for settlers, religious refuge (Mormons).
What were arguments to annex western lands?
Manifest Destiny and American institutions (democracy).
What were the impacts of the US acquiring the Mexican Cession?
Debates over the status of slavery (Wilmot Proviso), Native Americans, and Mexicans in the newly acquired land.
How did the government encourage westward migration?
Passing new legislation (think Homestead Act) encouraging settlers to move west, government gave land and subsidies to RR companies.
What was the goal of the Nativist movement?
It was especially Anti-Catholic. The nativists hoped to limit the power and cultural influence of the immigrants (Irish and Germans).
What was the free soil movement?
Sought to keep slavery from expanding into newly acquired territories.
What were ways abolitionists campaigned against slavery?
Moral arguments (think William Lloyd Garrison), assisting slaves' escapes (think Underground RR), using violence (think Bleeding-Kansas and Harpers Ferry).
How did the South justify and defend slavery?
They claimed slavery was a positive good (John C. Calhoun).
What was the Compromise of 1850?
Dealt with the Mexican Cession - popular sovereignty would be used in the territory, slave trade was banned in Washington D.C., California was added as a free state, a more strict fugitive slave law was created.
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Overturned the MO Compromise - introduced popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska. Helped lead to the creation of the Republican Party.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Dred Scott v. Sanford?
Slaves were property, not citizens; Congress could NOT legislate slavery in the territories.
What did Lincoln campaign on in the election of 1860?
A free soil platform - non extension of slavery
What was a result of the election of 1860?
South Carolina seceded from the union, with other states following afterwards.
How did Lincoln's views towards the war change over time?
Lincoln viewed the war initially as preserving the union, but eventually sought to end slavery -> Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address.
Why did the Union ultimately prevail in the Civil War?
Improvements in leadership and strategy (Grant and the "Anaconda Plan"), Key Victories - Gettysburg, Antietam, Greater resources - more factories and RRs, the South's infrastructure was destroyed.
What did the 13 - 15 amendments do?
13 - abolished slavery
14 - granted citizenship and equal protection
15 - universal adult male suffrage
Why did the 15 amendment split the women's rights movement?
Some women advocated suffrage be extended to women as well as African American males.
Why did Reconstruction end?
Compromise of 1877 withdrew troops from the South; The North's WANING resolve led to many in the North to no longer support Reconstruction.
What is sharecropping?
Renting of land to former slaves - limited economic opportunities to former slaves and poor whites in the south.
What were ways the South resisted the 14th and 15th amendments? (Great Short Answer Question if you ask me)
Segregation - Jim Crow laws
Violence - KKK an White League
Supreme Court Decisions - Plessy v. Ferguson ("Separate but equal")
Local political tactics - poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses