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1. conducting 2. respiratory

List the functional divisions of the respiratory system

conducting portion

a portion of the respiratory that directs and conditions (warms) and moistens air to and from the lungs

respiratory portion

a portion of the respiratory containing the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolor sacs, and alveoli.

nasal conchae

a conducting portion of the respiratory composed of cartilage and bone. It is subdivided into the superior, middle and inferior portions. It functions by slowing and warming incoming air. Superficial venous plexuses are placed to warm the air. It is lined by respiratory epithelium

1. nasal cavity 2. nasopharynx 3. oropharynx 4. laryngopharynx 5. trachea 6. bronchiole

list the anatomical subdivisions of the conducting system


an anterior chamber behind the external nares. The epithelium is a continuation of the epidermis. It transitions into stratified squamous epithelium before becoming respiratory epithelium.


ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells exists in ____________ epithelium.

lamina propria

connective tissue underlying the respiratory epithelium

respiratory mucosa

a layer of the respiratory containing 1. epithelium 2. lamina propria

brush cells

cells that lack cilia but have microvilli. Are thought to be sensory receptor

bowman's gland

glands within the lamina propria of the olfactory mucosa.

respiratory epithelium

______________ epithelium lines the nasopharynx

stratified squamous

______________ epithelium lines the oropharynx

stratified squamous

______________epithelium lines the laryngopharynx


closes the airway and channels food down the esophagus.


this respiratory portion extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi. It contain characteristic c-shaped hyaline cartilage.

1. mucosa 2. submucosa 3. cartilagenous-smooth muscle layer 4. adventitia

list the layers of the trachea

pulmonary arteries

this blood vessel runs with the respiratory tree.

pulmonary veins

this blood vessel type is removed from the respiratory tree (does not run with the tree).

intrapulmonary bronchus

this respiratory portion contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium. It also contains a muscularis and the diagnostic feature is the loss in C-shape to the hyaline cartilage. Cartilage can appear in islands.


this disease is caused by muscle contraction in the bronchioles, leading to a constricted airway.


in this portion of the respiratory, goblet cells become more scarce and the epithelium transitions from psuedostratified columnar to simple columnar

terminal bronchiole

the last segment of the conducting portion, epithelium changes to simple ciliated columnar or cuboidal. Clara cells become abundant.

clara cells

cells that produce surfactant to prevent luminal adhesion of the bronchioles.

respiratory bronchiole

the first segment of the respiratory portion or gas exchange. It opens up into alveolar ducts, and alveoli

type II alveolar cells

these cells secrete pulmonary surfactant to lower the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate, thereby increasing the capability to exchange gases

alveolar duct

A channel leading from the respiratory bronchioles to alveolar sacs.

alveolar sac

two or more conjoined alveoli that share a common opening. They appear like a bundle of grapes.

simple squamous

_____________ epithelium lines the walls of alveoli.

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