a portion of the respiratory that directs and conditions (warms) and moistens air to and from the lungs
a portion of the respiratory containing the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolor sacs, and alveoli.
a conducting portion of the respiratory composed of cartilage and bone. It is subdivided into the superior, middle and inferior portions. It functions by slowing and warming incoming air. Superficial venous plexuses are placed to warm the air. It is lined by respiratory epithelium
1. nasal cavity 2. nasopharynx 3. oropharynx 4. laryngopharynx 5. trachea 6. bronchiole
list the anatomical subdivisions of the conducting system
an anterior chamber behind the external nares. The epithelium is a continuation of the epidermis. It transitions into stratified squamous epithelium before becoming respiratory epithelium.
this respiratory portion extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi. It contain characteristic c-shaped hyaline cartilage.
1. mucosa 2. submucosa 3. cartilagenous-smooth muscle layer 4. adventitia
list the layers of the trachea
this blood vessel type is removed from the respiratory tree (does not run with the tree).
this respiratory portion contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium. It also contains a muscularis and the diagnostic feature is the loss in C-shape to the hyaline cartilage. Cartilage can appear in islands.
this disease is caused by muscle contraction in the bronchioles, leading to a constricted airway.
in this portion of the respiratory, goblet cells become more scarce and the epithelium transitions from psuedostratified columnar to simple columnar
the last segment of the conducting portion, epithelium changes to simple ciliated columnar or cuboidal. Clara cells become abundant.
the first segment of the respiratory portion or gas exchange. It opens up into alveolar ducts, and alveoli
type II alveolar cells
these cells secrete pulmonary surfactant to lower the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate, thereby increasing the capability to exchange gases
two or more conjoined alveoli that share a common opening. They appear like a bundle of grapes.