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29 terms

respiratory system

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1. conducting 2. respiratory
List the functional divisions of the respiratory system
conducting portion
a portion of the respiratory that directs and conditions (warms) and moistens air to and from the lungs
respiratory portion
a portion of the respiratory containing the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolor sacs, and alveoli.
nasal conchae
a conducting portion of the respiratory composed of cartilage and bone. It is subdivided into the superior, middle and inferior portions. It functions by slowing and warming incoming air. Superficial venous plexuses are placed to warm the air. It is lined by respiratory epithelium
1. nasal cavity 2. nasopharynx 3. oropharynx 4. laryngopharynx 5. trachea 6. bronchiole
list the anatomical subdivisions of the conducting system
vestibule
an anterior chamber behind the external nares. The epithelium is a continuation of the epidermis. It transitions into stratified squamous epithelium before becoming respiratory epithelium.
respiratory
ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells exists in ____________ epithelium.
lamina propria
connective tissue underlying the respiratory epithelium
respiratory mucosa
a layer of the respiratory containing 1. epithelium 2. lamina propria
brush cells
cells that lack cilia but have microvilli. Are thought to be sensory receptor
bowman's gland
glands within the lamina propria of the olfactory mucosa.
respiratory epithelium
______________ epithelium lines the nasopharynx
stratified squamous
______________ epithelium lines the oropharynx
stratified squamous
______________epithelium lines the laryngopharynx
epiglottis
closes the airway and channels food down the esophagus.
trachea
this respiratory portion extends from the larynx to the primary bronchi. It contain characteristic c-shaped hyaline cartilage.
1. mucosa 2. submucosa 3. cartilagenous-smooth muscle layer 4. adventitia
list the layers of the trachea
pulmonary arteries
this blood vessel runs with the respiratory tree.
pulmonary veins
this blood vessel type is removed from the respiratory tree (does not run with the tree).
intrapulmonary bronchus
this respiratory portion contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium. It also contains a muscularis and the diagnostic feature is the loss in C-shape to the hyaline cartilage. Cartilage can appear in islands.
asthma
this disease is caused by muscle contraction in the bronchioles, leading to a constricted airway.
bronchioles
in this portion of the respiratory, goblet cells become more scarce and the epithelium transitions from psuedostratified columnar to simple columnar
terminal bronchiole
the last segment of the conducting portion, epithelium changes to simple ciliated columnar or cuboidal. Clara cells become abundant.
clara cells
cells that produce surfactant to prevent luminal adhesion of the bronchioles.
respiratory bronchiole
the first segment of the respiratory portion or gas exchange. It opens up into alveolar ducts, and alveoli
type II alveolar cells
these cells secrete pulmonary surfactant to lower the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate, thereby increasing the capability to exchange gases
alveolar duct
A channel leading from the respiratory bronchioles to alveolar sacs.
alveolar sac
two or more conjoined alveoli that share a common opening. They appear like a bundle of grapes.
simple squamous
_____________ epithelium lines the walls of alveoli.