24 terms

Science Genetics Test Study Guide

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Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity
Fertilization
The joining of a sperm and an egg
Purebred
The offspring of many generations that have the same traits
Gene
The set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Alleles
The different forms of a gene
Dominant Allele
An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Recessive Allele
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Hybrid
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait; an organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
Probability
A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Punnett square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
Genotype
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a trait
Codominance
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
Sexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
Diploid cell
Describes a cell that has two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
Haploid cell
A cell with a single set of unpaired chromosomes
Meiosis
The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half
Messenger RNA
RNA that copies the coded message from DNA in the nucleus and carries the message into the cytoplasm
Transfer RNA
RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and adds it tho the growing protein chain
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome
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