Brain Parts and Terms
From the History Channel's The Brain, Text pages 444-461, The Brain Slide show on Cerebrum and Exercise 14 Structure and Function of the Brain
Terms in this set (56)
Information highway - carries info up to the brain and instructions back down.
Controls vital functions like BP, HR, Resp, BP and digestion - first evolved part of the brain.
Helps with body's autonomic functions and reflexes - resp, digestion, HR, swallowing. Relay station for nerve signals to and from the brain.
Relays sensory info, helps control autonomic body functions and has a role in levels of arousal or consciousness and sleep.
Has inferior colliculi (hearing pathways) and superior colliculi (visual pathways).
Throughout brainstem, helps control cyclic activities like the sleep/wake cycle.
includes limbic system/ inner brain.
areas of gray matter made of clusters of cell bodies deep within cerebral hemisphere. Control autonomic skeletal muscle movement and are involved in limbic system/ emotional brain.
Second to evolve in brain after brainstem. Emotions, memory, unconscious value judgements are made, involved with what grabs your attention, spontaneity and creativity.
Stores and classifies emotionally charged memories, role in producing emotions like fear and panic. Triggers responses to strong emotions like sweaty palms, freezing, increased HR, stress hormone release.
Mostly memory and some learning. Memory formation, classifying information, long-term memory, temporary memory for long term strorage. Interprets incoming nerve signals and spacial relationships.
Linked closely with pituitary gland by infundibulum and controls many body functions, maintains homeostasis, biorhythms, appetite, thirst, endocrine, reproductive, stress, mood, motivation.
The relay station in the brain. Most sensory signals, auditory, visual and somatosensory (from skin and internal organs) go through here to be sent to other areas of brain. Functions in motor control, too.
Contains pineal body. Involved in olfactory senses and sleep/wake cycle
controls onset of puberty. Within epithalamus.
Regulates and coordinates movement, posture, balance and learning movement. Need to do something 10,000 times to become an expert.
Branching white matter inside of cerebellar hemispheres.
Ridges of cerebellar cortex
Connects the two cerebellar hemispheres.
largest division of the brain. Divided into two hemispheres.
outermost layer of gray matter making up superficial aspect of cerebrum.
Ridges of cerebral cortex
Small grooves within cerebral cortex
Divides frontal lobe from parietal lobe
deep grooves, generally dividing large regions or lobes of the brain.
Divides the two cerebral hemispheres
Separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
Divides temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes
Memory formation, higher emotions (like empathy and altruism), decision making, reasoning, problem solving, judgement, personality. Center of command and control of body.
Primary Motor Cortex
(precentral gyrus) controls movement of the body.
controls facial neurons, speech, language comprehension (left frontal lobe)
frontal lobotomies done here to diminish rage and aggression.
Cranial nerve 1, sensation of smell receptors.
Sense and integrates sensations, spacial awareness and perception.
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
(postcentral gyrus) processing of tactile and proprioceptive information.
Processing, integration and interpretation of vision and viual stimuli
Somatosensory Association Cortex
Integration and Interpretation of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space. Visuomotor coordination.
Primary Gustatory Cortex
Interpretation of sensation of taste
Primary Visual Cortex
Primary area of brain responsible for sight, recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc.
Visual Association Area
Interprets information acquired through primary visual cortex
Hearing, organization and comprehension of language, information retrieval, memory and memory formation
Primary Auditory Cortex
responsible for hearing
Primary Olfactory Cortex
Interprets smell from olfactory bulbs
Language comprehension, located on left temporal lobe.
White matter tract connecting Broca's area and Wernicke's area through parietal, temporal and frontal lobes
neural bridge that connects the two hemispheres, located centrally.
connective tissue membranes protecting the brain.
first meninge, thick, two layers (periosteal attached to bone and meningeal next to arachnoid mater.
drain cranial blood into jugular veins.
middle membrane, deep to dura mater
membrane adhering to surface of cerebral cortex
between dura mater and arachnoid mater
Between arachnoid mater and pia mater.
2 lateral, 3rd and 4th. They make CSF
Cerebral Spinal Fluid
made in ventricles, protects brain and bathes brain and spinal cord with oxygen, nutrients and vital chemicals.
Flow of CSF
lateral ventricles --> 3rd --> 4th --> arachnoid space --> out arachnoid villi into blood stream.