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an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
The text best defines personality as:
the psychoanalytic perspective
Which of the following places the greatest emphasis on the unconscious mind?
oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital
Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Freud?
Freud placed too much emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts
Neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney believed that:
better able to cope with stress
Research on locus of control indicates that internals are ________ than externals.
extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability
Which two dimensions of personality have the Eysencks emphasized?
there is little consistency of behavior from on situation to the next but significant consistency of traits over the life span
With regard to personality, it appears that:
genuineness, acceptance, and empathy
According to Rogers, three conditions are necessary to promote growth in personality. These are:
is generally adaptive to the individual because it maintains self-confidence and minimizes depression
Regarding the self-serving bias, psychologists who study the self have found that self-affirming thinking:
development is essentially fixed in childhood
Which of Freud's ideas would not be accepted by most contemporary psychologists?
they have low reliability and low validity
Projective tests such as the Rorschach inkblot test have been criticized because:
overestimates the consistency of behavior in different situations
A major criticism of trait theory is that it:
self-concept; positive; negative
For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately shaped by whether our ____ is ________ or _____.
it focuses too little on the inner traits of a person
Which of the following is the major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective?
reaction formation; displacement
Recent research has provided more support for defense mechanisms such as ______ than for defense mechanisms such as _______.
basic dimensions of personality; the interaction of persons and environments
Today's personality researchers focus their work on:
Which perspective on personality emphasizes the interaction between the individual and the environment in shaping personality?
our biological impulses and the social restraints against them
According to Freud's theory, personality arises in response to conflicts between:
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The _______ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types.
Seligman has found that humans and animals who are exposed to aversive events they cannot escape may develop:
more critical of others
Research has found that individuals who are made to feel insecure are subsequently:
see themselves as better than average on nearly any desirable dimension; accept more responsibility for successes than failures
An example of the self-serving bias described in the text is the tendency of people to:
empirically derived and objective personality test
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):
describe and classify people in terms of their predispositions to behave in certain ways
Trait theory attempts to:
people with an internal locus of control achieve more in school
With which of the following statements would a social-cognitive psychologist agree?
people with low self-esteem tend to be non-conformists
Which of the following statements about self-esteem is not correct?
the concepts are vague and subjective; the emphasis on the self encourages selfishness in individuals; humanism fails to appreciate the reality of evil in human behavior
Which of the following is a common criticism of the humanistic perspective?
observing behavior in different situations
In studying personality, a social-cognitive theorist would most likely make use of:
trait theory defines personality in terms of behavior, and psychoanalytic theory in terms of its underlying dynamics; trait theory describes behavior but does not attempt to explain it; psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the origins of personality in childhood sexuality
A major difference between the psychoanalytic and trait perspective is that:
emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
The Big Five personality factors are:
there is no evidence of anything like an "unconscious"
Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Freud's theory?
According to Freud, ________ is the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their ________.
none of the above (women, ethnic minorities, disabled persons)
Which of the following groups tend to suffer from relatively low self-esteem?
some tendencies decrease during adulthood, while others increase
Recent research on the Big Five personality factors provides evidence that:
Professor Minton believes that people strive to find meaning in life because they are terrified of their own mortality. Evidently, Professor Minton is a proponent of:
A psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self-indulgent as possessing a strong _______ and a weak ________.
Because Ramona identifies with her politically conservative parents, she chose to enroll in a conservative college. After four years in this environment Ramona's politics have become even more conservative. Which perspective best accounts for the mutual influences of Ramona's upbringing, choice of school, and political viewpoint?
fixated in the oral stage of development
Jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. According to Freud, she is:
the self-serving bias
James attributes his failing grade in chemistry to an unfair final exam. His attitude exemplifies:
overestimate the extent to which other people are noticing them
The behavior of many people has been described in terms of a spotlight effect. This means that they
Because you have a relatively low level of brain arousal, a trait theorist would suggest that you are a(n) _____ who would naturally seek _____.
A psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. Which test did the psychologist most likely administer?
a projective test
The personality test Teresa is taking involves her describing random patterns of dots. What type of test is she taking?
Dr. Gonzalez believes that most students can be classified as "Type A" or "Type B" according to the intensities of their personalities and competitiveness. Evidently, Dr. Gonzalez is working within the _____ perspective.
has some unresolved conflicts concerning her mother
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, a child who frequently "slips" and calls her teacher "mom" probably:
is an introvert; is an extrovert
Isaiah is sober and reserved; Rashid is fun-loving and affectionate. The Eysencks would say that Isaiah _____ and Rashid _____.
In high school, Britta and Debbie were best friends. They thought they were a lot alike, as did everyone else who knew them. After high school, they went on to very different colleges, careers, and life courses. Now, at their twenty-fifth reunion, they are shocked at how little they have in common. Bandura would suggest that their differences reflect the interactive effects of environment, personality, and behavior, which he refers to as:
For his class presentation, Bruce plans to discuss the Big Five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. Which of the following is not a factor that Bruce will discuss?
is not necessarily unusual
Dayna is not very consistent in showing up for class and turning in assignments when they are due. Research studies would suggest that Dayna's inconsistent behavior:
is a self-actualizing person
Andrew's grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self-accepting person. Maslow might say that he:
The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is working within the ________ perspective.
teach her children first to accept themselves
Wanda wishes to instill in her children an accepting attitude toward other people. Maslow and Rogers would probably recommend that she:
Suzy bought a used, high-mileage automobile because it was all she could afford. Attempting to justify her purchase, she raves to her friends about the car's attractiveness, good acceleration, and stereo. According to Freud, Suzy is using the defense mechanism of:
Nadine has a relatively high level of brain arousal. Trait theorists would probably predict that she is:
is rooted in science
During a class discussion, Trevor argues that "positive psychology" is sure to wane in popularity, since it suffers from the same criticisms as humanistic psychology. You counter his argument by pointing out that, unlike humanistic psychology, positive psychology:
Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth?
Which perspective views the human condition as a mixture of unconscious desires and conflicts?
Although Paul seems bright and capable to his parents and friends, he has been failing in school. Paul agrees to speak with a psychologist, who suggests that his problems stem from internal processes such as unrealistic expectations and negative thinking. The psychologist's view is typical of which of the following models of behavior?
A hostile person with a type A personality is most at risk for developing which of the following?
The technique of assessing personality by asking a person to make up a story based on a picture presented by the researcher is and example of which of the following types of tests?
Which of the following reflects the inborn and stable rudiments of personality, such as excitability?
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