final bio exam
Terms in this set (44)
alternate versions of genes that could occupy the same locus
which kind of dominance is demonstrated by the Rh factor
three components of a nucleotide
nitrogonous base, pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA), and phosphate
four nitrogenous bases in DNA
adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Which DNA nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?
Which DNA nitrogenous bases are purines?
the amount of cytosine is equal to?
if a DNA molecule has 40% thymine, how much cytosine?
complete dominance example
The phenotype of the heterozygote genotype is the same as the phenotype of the homozygous dominant phenotype
- one allele dominates another allele
incomplete dominance example
The phenotype of the heterozygote genotype falls within a range between the phenotype of the homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive genotype
- niether allele is expressed fully
The phenotype of the heterozygote genotype will show both phenotypes of the homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive genotype
- both alleles are expressed fully
x linked recessive gene inheritance
heterozygotes can have the gene but not express the disease phenotype
In Semi-Conservative DNA replication, each new molecule of DNA consists of?
1 template strand and one new strand
How many replication origins does a prokaryotic DNA molecule have?
How many replication origins does a eukaryotic DNA molecule have?
What is the enzyme that unwinds the DNA molecule at the beginning of replication?
Single-strand binding proteins (SSB's) do what?
stabalize and hold apart the template DNA strands
what way does DNA replication occur
5' to 3'
What enzyme adds DNA nucleotides to the DNA?
On the lagging strand of DNA, what are the fragmented segments of newly replicated DNA called
What enzyme ligates (glues) the Okazaki Fragments together?
mendels first law
law of segragation using single trait crosses
how many alleles do the F1 generations have
two; consisting of a dominant an recessive allele
mendals second law
law of independent assortment using multiple trait crosses
more then two alleles for a gene are found within a population
one gene alters the effects of another gene
many genes contribute to a phenotype
one gene can effect several phenotypes
special chromosomes determining sex
what is gene structure based on?
two nucleic acids: deoxyribonuceic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA)
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
sides of a DNA formed by?
repeating sugar-phosphate groups from each nucleotide
horizontal portion of DNA formed by?
hydrogen bonds involving A with T or G with C
heredity info on DNA?
genes found along the linear sequence of nucleotides in the DNA molecule
how are DNA replicated?
unzipping the helix and pairing new nucleotides with the proper bases
messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription
- coppied from DNA by unzipping a portion of the DNA helix that corresponds to a gene
- sequences of nucleotides called introns are removed, exon segments are spliced together
- mature mRNA leaves the nucleus to be translated by the ribosomes
- proteins are synthesized from mRNA by ribosomes which read from universal triplet code
- ribosomes instruct transfer RNA's (tRNA's) to bring specific amino acids in the sequence dictated by the mRNA
haploid gametes will be identical for the given traits (AA individuals will produce A gametes only)
haploid gametes will be different for the given traits. (AaBb individuals would produce AB, Ab, aB, and ab gametes)
expected phenotypic ratio of the F2 individuals in a monohybrid cross would be?
3/4 would show dominant trait
1/4 would show recessive trait
expected genotypic ratio of the F2 individuals in a monohybrid cross would be?
what percentage of the dihybrid f2 generation showed both dominant traits?
how many of dihybrid f2 generation showed one dominant and one recessive trait?
how many dihybrid f2 generations showed both recessive traits
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