145 terms

Animal Biology Exam #4

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Fixed Action Patterns (FAPs)
Behavioral responses elicited by a sign stimulus

Can be modified by learning
Imprinting
A form of learning in which an animal develops an association with the first moving object it sees during a sensitive period.
Associative Learning
A change in behavior that involved an association between two events

Two forms: Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning
The pairing of two different types of stimuli causes an animals to form an association between them

Dogs salivating at a bell.
Operant Conditioning
Animals learn behaviors because they are rewarded when they preform them.
Migration
When an animal travels from one location to another
Orientation
The ability to travel in a particular direction.
Navigation
The ability to change direction in response to the environmental cues.

Such as sun, stars, and Earth's magnetic field during migration
Insight Learning
When an animal solves a problem without having prior experience with the situation
Societies
Members of various species of animals are organized in a cooperative manner.
Communication
An action by a sender that affects the behavior of a receiver.

Forms: Chemical, auditory, visual, and tactile
Pheromones
Chemical signals passed between members of the same species.
Auditory Communication
The passing of information through sound, which can include language.
Visual Communication
The passing of information through the use of visual cues

Mainly for animals in the daytime
Tactile Communication
The passing of information through the use of touch; often associated with sexual behavior
Behavioral Ecology
The study of how natural selection shapes behavior
Territory
Animals can obtain food, acquire living space, and reproduce.
Territoriality
Defending one's territory.
Optimal Foraging Model
An adaptive behavior in which foraging is as energetically efficient as possible.
Polygamous
One males mates with multiple females
Polyandrous
One females mates with multiple males
Monogamous
A male and a female form a pair bond and mate only with each other.

Example: Gibbons
Sexual Selection
A form of natural selection for traits that increase an animal's fitness.
Altruism
A behavior in which an individual benefits the reproductive success of another member of society while limiting its own.
Kin Selection
Occurs when individuals increase the reproductive success of their relatives.
Inclusive Fitness
Personal reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of relatives.
Reciprocal Altruism
Animals aid one another for future benefits.
Ecology
Termed from Ernest Haeckel

The study of the interactions among all organisms and with their physical environment
Biosphere
Zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found
Ecosystem
Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by the flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients
Community
Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment
Population
Group of organisms of the same species occupying a certain area and sharing a common gene pool.
Habitat
Place where an organism lives and is able to survive and reproduce
Demography
Properties of the rate of growth and the age structure of populations
Population Density
The number of individuals per unit area or volume.
Distribution can be in three different shapes
Uniform, random, or clumped
Limiting Factors
Resource or environmental condition that restricts the abundance and distribution of an organism.

Determines where an organism will live.
Resource
Abiotic and biotic components of an environment that support or are needed by living organisms

Such as water, sunlight, temperature, and availability of nutrients
Population Distribution
The patterns of dispersal of individuals living within a certain area.

Determined by abiotic factors such as resources.
Age Structure Diagram
In demographics, a display of the age groups of a population; a growing population has a pyramid-shaped diagram
Survivorship
Probability of newborn individuals of a cohort surviving to particular ages
Biotic Potential
Maximum population growth rate under ideal conditions
Cohort
Group of individuals having a statistical factor in common, such as year of birth, in a population study
Rate of Natural Increase (r)
Growth rate dependent on the number of individuals that are born each year and the number of individuals that die each year.
Semelparity
A population that has one reproductive event before it dies.
Iteroparity
A population that has multiple reproductive events throughout its lifetime.
Exponential Growth
J Shaped
Growth, particularly of a population, in which the increase occurs in the same manner as compound interest.
Logistic Growth
S shaped
Population increase that results in an S-shaped curse; growth is slow at first, steepens, and then levels off due to environmental resistance
Carrying Capacity (K)
Largest number of organisms of a particular species that can be maintained indefinitely by a given environment.
Density-Indpendent Factors
Examples: Abiotic factors, such as weather event
Abiotic factor such as fire or flood that affects population size independent of the population density.
Density-Dependent Factor
Biotic factor, such as disease or competition that affects population size in a direct relationship to the population density.

Example: Competition or predation
K-Selection
Favorable life-history strategy under stable environmental conditions characterized by the production of a few offspring with much attention given to offspring survival
r-selection
Favorable life history strategy under certain environmental conditions; characterized by a high reproductive rate with little or no attention given to offspring survival.
Replacement Reproduction
Population in which each person is replaced by only one child
Zero Population Growth
No growth in population size.
Demographic Transition
Due to industrialization, a decline in the birthrate following a reduction in the death rate, so that the population growth rate is lowered.
Less-developed Country (LDC)
Country that is becoming industrialized; typically, population growth is expanding rapidly, and the majority of people live in poverty.
More-Developed Country (MDC)
Country that is industrialized; typically population growth is low, and the people enjoy a good standard of living overall.
Double Time
Number of years it takes for a population to double in size.
Community
An assemblage of populations interacting with one another in the same environment
Species Richness
Communities differing in their composition
Species Diversity
Included both species richness and relative abundance
Island Biogeography Model
helps us determine the ideal size of conservation areas

Closer to main land, more diversity.
Ecological Niche
The role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and how it interacts with other species in the community.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
No two species can indefinitely occupy the same niche at the same time.
Resource Partitioning
Decreases competition between species, which can lead to character displacement.
Predation
When a predator feeds upon prey.
Examples of Prey Defense
Camouflage, warning coloration, and mimicry

Bayesian--> Has warning coloration but lacks the defense

Mullein--> When two species with the same warning coloration have the same defense.
Symbiosis
The close association of two species over a long period of time, comes in several forms.
Parasitism
Occurs when a parasite takes nourishment from its host.
Commensalism
Occurs when one species gains a benefit from the relationship and there is no impact on the other
Mutualism
Occurs when both species involved i a relationship receive a positive benefit.
Coevolution
A change in one species in response to a change in the other.
Ecological successions
involves a series of species replacements in a community.
Primary Succession
Occurs where there is no soil present
Secondary Succession
Occurs where soil is present and certain plant species can begin to grow
Pioneer Species
The first producers to inhabit an area after a disturbance
Climax Community
When stages of succession lead to a particular type of community.
Ecosystem
Populations interact with each other and the abiotic environment.
Autotrophs
Which are the producers of the community
Heterotrophs
Which are the consumers of the community

Can be classified as: Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, and decomposers
Food Web
Which the various organisms are connected by trophic relationships.
Food Chains
being with the producer
Trophic Levels
depict the levels of nutrients available in a food web or chain
Ecological Pyramid
As energy flows from one level to the next
Biogeochemical cycles
the pathways in which chemicals circulate through ecosystems

Involves: Reservoir, exchange pool, and biotic community
Water Cycle
Evaporation over the ocean is not compensated for by precipitation
Transfer Rate
The amount of substance that moves from one component of the environment to another.
Eutrophication
Excessive accumulation of phosphorus in an aquatic community
Nitrogen Fixation
N2 coverts to ammonium making nitrogen available to plant.
Nitrification
The production of nitrates
Denitrification
Conversion of nitrate back to N2, which enters the atmosphere
Acid Deposition
When nitrogen oxides enter the atmosphere, combine with water vapor, and return to Earth in precipitation.
Evolution
The genetic change in species over time, resulting in the development of genetic and phenotypic differences that are the basis of natural selection; descent of organisms from a common ancestor.
Extant
Species, or other levels of taxa, that are still living.
Vestigial Structure
Remnant of a structure that was functional in some ancestor but is no longer functional in the organism in question.
Paleontology
Study of fossils that result in knowledge about the history of life.
Strata
Ancient layers of sedimentary rock; result from slow deposition of silt, volcanic ash, and other materials.
Catastrophism
Belief, proposed by Georges Cuvier, that periods of catastrophic extinctions occurred, after which repopulation of serving species took place, giving the appearance of change through time.
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
Layarckian belief that characteristics acquired firing the lifetime of an organism can be passed on to offspring.
Uniformitarianism
Belief, supported by James Hutton, that geologic forces act at a continuos, uniform rate.
Biogeography
Study of the geographical distribution of organisms.
Fitness
Ability of an organism to reproduce and pass its gene to the next fertile generation; measured against the ability of other organisms to reproduce in the same environment.
Adaptation
Species modification in structure, function, or behavior that makes a species more suitable to its environment.
Artificial Selection
Intentional breeding of certain traits, or combinations of traits, over others to produce a desirable outcome.
Fossil
Any past evidence of an organism that has been preserved in the Earth's crust
Transitional Fossil
Fossil that bears a resemblance to two groups that in the present day are classified separately.
Homologous, Homologous Structure
A structure that is similar in different types of organisms because these organisms descended from a common ancestor.
Analogous, Analogous Structure
Structure that has a similar function in separate lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry.
Microevolution
Change in gene frequencies between populations of a species over time
Population Genetics
The study of gene frequencies and their changes within a population
Gene Pool
Total of the alleles of all the individuals in a population. Colonization by a limited number of individuals who, by chance, have different genotypes and allele frequencies than the parent population.
Allele Frequency
Relative proportion of each allele for a gene in the gene pool of a population
Hardy-Weinberg Principle (Equilibrium)
Mathematical law stating that the gene frequencies in a population remain stable if evolution does not occur due to nonrandom mating, selection, migration, and genetic drift.
Five Condition of HWE
1. No mutation
2. No migration
3. Large gene pool
4. Random Mating
5. No selection

All must be met for it to work, if one does not the HWE does not apply.
Gene Flow
Sharing of genes between two populations through interbreeding
Reproductively Isolated
Descriptive term that indicates that a population is incapable of interbreeding with another population.
Genetic Drift
Mechanism of evolution due to random changes in the allelic frequencies of a population; more likely to occur in small populations or when only a few individuals of a large population reproduce.
Bottleneck effect
Type of genetic drift; occurs when a majority of genotypes are prevented from participating in the production of the next generation as a result of a natural disaster or human interference.
Founder Effect
Cause of genetic drift due to the lose when a few individuals break away from a large population to found a new population.
Interbreeding
Mating between closely related individuals; influences the genotype ratios of the gene pool.
Nonrandom Mating
Mating among individuals on the basis of their phenotypic similarities or differences, rather than mating on a random basis.
Assertive Mating
Mating of individuals with similar phenotypes
Polygenic
Controlled by many genes
Stabilizing Selection
Outcome of natural selection in which extreme phenotypes are eliminated and the average phenotype is conserved.
Directional Selection
Outcome of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored, usually in a changing environment
Disruptive Selection
Outcome of natural selection in which the two extreme phenotypes are favored over the average phenotype, leading to more than one distinct form.
Fitness
Ability of an organism to reproduce and pass its genes to the next fertile generation; measured against the ability of other organisms to reproduce in the same environment.
Sexual Dimorphism
Species that have distinct differences between the sexes, resulting in male and female forms.
Dominance Hierarchy
Organization of animals in a group that determines the order in which the animals have access to resources.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
A weighting-out of the costs and benefits (in terms to contributions to reproductive success) of a particular strategy or behavior.
Heterozygote Advantage
Situation in which individuals heterozygous for a trait have a selective advantage over those who are homozygous dominant or recessive; an example is sickle cell disease.
proximate cause
The how of behavior
Ultimate cause
The why of behavior
habitat isolation
A difference in habitat preference can separate two populations in the same geographic area
Temporal isolation
Mating periods do not overlap
Mechanical isolation
Difference in size and shape of reproductive organs making mating impossible
Behavioral isolation
Individuals reject or fail to recognize potential mating partners
Gametic isolation
Eggs of one species do not have appropriate chemical signals for sperm of another species, or sperm is not able to attach to and penetrate the egg
Competitive Inhibitor
Compete with the natural substrate for binding sites (Concentration Dependent)
Non-Competitive Inhibitor
Bind to the enzyme away from the active site and alter the shape of the active site, often functions as metabolic regulators
Reversible Inhibitor
Bonds non-covalently to the enzyme
Irreversibile Inhibitor
Bond covalently to side chains of the enzyme, permanently disables the enzyme.
Glycolysis Input and Output
Inputs:
Glucose, 2 NAD, 2 ATP, 2 ADP+2P

Output:
2 Pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4 ATP
Citric Acid Cycle Input and Output
Input:
2 Acetyl CoA, 6 NAD, 2 FAD, 2 ADP

Output:
4 CO2, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP