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PSYC 101 Chapter 13: Social Psychology
Terms in this set (57)
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to make judgments about someone's behavior based on INTERNAL factors, such as personality and disposition, and to underestimate the influence that external factors, such as SITUATIONAL influences, have on another person's behavior.
False Consensus Effect
A person's overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way she or he does.
The tendency to take credit for one's own success and to deny responsibility for one's failures
An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype about her or his group.
The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behavior, and abilities in relation to others.
An individual's opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas-how the person feels about the world
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
An individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
How can you reduce cognitive dissonance?
1. Change your behavior to match your attitude.
2. Change your attitude to match your behavior.
Daryl Bem (1967)
Theory on how behavior influences attitudes, stating that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
States that PERSUASION occurs in two ways: central route and a peripheral route.
Central Route of the ELM
Works by engaging the audience thoughtfully with a sound, logical argument.
Peripheral Route of ELM
Involves factors such as source's attractiveness or the emotional power of an appeal.
Making a small request, the request likely getting accepted, then making a larger request afterwords
Making a large demand first, which will most likely be rejected, then make a smaller demand that will most likely be accepted.
Unselfish interest in helping another person
We feel what another person is feeling.
What are the two psychological factors of pro-social behavior?
What two sociocultural factors influence pro-social behavior?
1. Socioeconomic status
2. Media influence
Characterized as behavior that is intended to harm another person.
What are the three biological influences in aggression?
3. Hormones (i.e. testosterone)
Frustration ALWAYS leads to aggression, but this was later disproved by other psychologists.
Averse experiences that can lead to aggression
- physical pain
- Weather. There are higher murder, rape, and assault cases in the summer when it's hot outside
The mere presence of a weapon may prime hostile thoughts and produce aggression.
Observational Learning Factors and Aggression
Watching others engage in aggressive actions can evoke aggression.
What are the two sociocultural influences in aggression
1. The culture of honor
The Culture of Honor and its relation to Aggression
Cultural norms about a masculine pride and family honor may foster aggressive behavior
- Honor Killings: a female rape victim is slain by her family members so that they, in turn, are not "contaminated" by the rape...
Cognitive shortcuts, such as stereotypes, which enable us to make decisions rapidly.
Normative Social Influence
The influence that other people have on us because we want them to like and approve of us.
When expectations about a future event or behavior act to increase the likelihood that the event or behavior will occur.
The process by which impressions of others is formed by social stimuli.
Aggressive behavior has been linked to a physiological system and a brain structure. What are they?
1. Limbic system
2. Frontal lobes
Group polarization effect
the solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion.
When we favor our own ethnic group over other ethnic groups.
Self Perception Theory
Explains the connection between attitudes and behaviors by suggesting that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their own behavior.
Stanford Prison Experiment
Occurs when a decision is riskier when made by a group than by an individual
An individual's strong feelings of loyalty toward a group after enduring difficult or unpleasant initiation rights.
Which of the following is a key social cue in persona perception?
1. The initial greeting
2. Tone of voice
3. The face
4. Hand gestures
Informational Social Influence
The influence other people have on us because we want to be correct.
Social Facilitation/ The Audience Effect
The tendency for people to perform differently [usually better] when in the presence of others than when alone.
Emphasizes the commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
Favorable views of oneself that are not necessarily grounded in reality
Downward Social Comparison
Comparing ourselves with those who are less fortunate- this can make us feel better about our own lives.
The tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearance or the match between a person and one's stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information.
The tendency to see oneself primarily as an object in the eyes of others.
A change in a person's behavior or thinking to coincide more closely with a group standard.
Normative Social Influence
The influence others have on us, because we want them to like us.
Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
Stanley Milgram's Experiment (1965, 1974)
65% of participants went all the way to the max voltage. Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing and innocent human being.
The reduction in personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility when one is part of a group.
The impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decisions is less important than maintaining group harmony.
Social Identity Theory
Social identity, based on group membership, is a crucial part of self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about oneself.
An unjustified negative ATTITUDE toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.
An unjustified negative or harmful ACTION toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group.
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that the more individuals encounter someone or something, the more probable it is that they will start liking the person or thing even if they do not realize they have seen it before.
Social Exchange Theory
The view that social relationships as involving and exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
Seeks to explain how we decide, on the bases of samples of an individual's behavior, what are specific causes of that person's behavior.
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