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AP European History Chapter 26
Terms in this set (96)
a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs. This policy was used almost unanimously across the European colonies in Africa.
Sphere of influence
These are what the countries of Europe wanted by sharing their culture with nations in Asia and Africa.
A canal by Egypt that allowed passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea, which provided the fastest route by sea to reach Asia. Britain tried to control it to regulate trade.
He was an Englishman who played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
"Capetown to Cairo"
This was Britain's policy for expanding their African empire from South to North.
Japan and Russia fought over this Chinese area during the Russo-Japanese War. After the Treaty of Portsmouth, it was settled that both factions evacuate, and the region's sovereignty was returned to China.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Three Emperor's League
This was an alliance started by Bismarck, between Germany, Austria, and Russia. Conflicting interests between Austria and Russia during the Russo-Turkish war and the resulting Congress of Berlin caused it to fall apart. Soon, Russia sought Germany for an alliance again, and it was rekindled in 1881.
Russo-Turkish War (1875)
This war had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. Concluded by the Treaty of San Stephano.
Treaty of San Stefano
This concluded the Russo-Turkish war. the principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, each of which had had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After four centuries of Ottoman domination (1396-1878), the Bulgarian state was reestablished as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania) and the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital. The Congress of Berlin also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom to take over Cyprus, while the Russian Empire annexed Southern Bessarabia and the Kars region.
EXTREME nationalism. The Brits even made a song about it!
Congress of Berlin
The English started this so the Russians would not gain the Dardanelles (and thus access to the Mediterranean) thanks to their gains from the Russo-Turkish War. This also made the Three Emperor's League fall apart since Germany did not support Russia's gains.
Bismarck referred to himself as this, and the title was justified; he agreed to congress simply because he wanted to avoid war between Russia and Austria in which he feared Germany would be drawn with nothing to gain and much to lose.
Created by Bismarck; contained Austria-Hungary and Germany when Russia left the alliance preceding the Congress of Berlin
Italy felt left-out without any allies, so they joined the Dual Alliance to form this.
Treaty between bismarck and russia in 1887 so germany wouldn't have a 2 front war. wilhelm fired bismarck, removed treaty, russia allied with france
This new German emperor opposed Bismarck, fired him, and ended up being less successful than Bismarck anyway
General Leo Caprivi
He was the new chancellor that William II hired once Bismarck was done. Came up with the Schlieffen Plan to fight France.
Period of isolation in GB, where they feel as though they do not need to get involved in the war; Perpetual Neutrality
He was the head of the Boer resistance during the Second Boer War.
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz
(March 19, 1849 - March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the Kaiserliche Marine from 1897 until 1916. He is considered to be the founder of the German Imperial navy.
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
The series of understandings, or agreements, between France and Britian that led to their alliance in World War 1
A war fought between Russia and Japan for territory in Asia. Ended and negotiated by Theodore Roosevelt with the Treaty of Portsmouth.
First Moroccan Crisis
German attempt to break up Franco-English alliance by taking Morocco but caused the Russian, French, and English alliance
Algeciras conference 1906
Lasting from January 16 to April 7 1906. The purpose of this conference which was held in Spain was to find an issue to the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany, which arose as Germany attempted to prevent France from establishing a protectorate over Morocco.
Sir Edward Grey
The British Foreign minister at the time WWI started. Predicted a long and bloody war.
The alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia. became the Allies during World War I.
This occurred when Austria, who had made a previous agreement with Russia to support opening up the Straits for warships if Russia supported Austria
The strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey
"Little Slavic Brothers"
This was why Russia always supported Serbia, and why there was so much tension between Austria and Russia.
The Second Moroccan Crisis
The international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat Panther, to the Moroccan port of Agadir on July 1, 1911. Germany's move was aimed at testing the relationship between Britain and France and possibly intimidate Britain into an alliance with her, as well as enforcing claims for compensation for acceptance of effective French control of the North African kingdom, where France's pre-eminence had been upheld by the 1906 Algeciras Conference following the First Moroccan Crisis a year earlier.
A large German gunboat whose presence sparked the Second Moroccan crisis when it entered Agadir.
First Balkan War
This war lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, and achieved rapid success. As a result of the war, almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire were captured and partitioned among the allies. Ensuing events also led to the creation of an independent Albanian state. Despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied with the peace settlement and with the Ottoman threat gone, soon started a Second Balkan War against its former allies.
Second Balkan War
This war was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 June 1913. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, penetrating into Bulgaria. Having previously engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, the new war caused a Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to give up much of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottomans.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by a terrorist from Bosnia who wanted Bosnia to break away from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia. No one liked him anyway, though.
Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government. They shot Francis Ferdinand.
Conrad von Hotzendorf
Chief of Austrian general staff, urged an attack, on Serbia as a solution to empires slavic problem in response to the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
Count Stefan Tisza
(1861-1918) Hungarian chief of staff who opposed an attack on Serbia because of the threat of Russian intervention and without a firm commitment from Germany.
Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
German chancellor, who encouraged the Austrian attack on the Serbs, and who arguably has the longest name in this whole set.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Peace without victory
President Woodrow Wilson's policy with regard to reconciling the belligerent nations. He said that harsh reparations should not be implemented. The Treaty of Versailles kind of killed this, huh?
Social Democratic Party
Following the abdication of William II of Germany, this party proclaimed a republic to avoid the establishment of a soviet government.
Independent Social Party
The Leninist wing of Germany. The party sought to establish a soviet state, but the proclamation of a republic prevented it from carrying out its goals.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Seeking retribution against Germany, he repudiated Wilson's Fourteen Points.
President Woodrow Wilson
Speaking on behalf of the United States, he presented the Fourteen Points.
He represented France at the Paris Conference. He too sought vengeance against Germany.
Vittorio Emmanuele Orlando
Spokesman for Italy at the Paris Conference. He pushed for Italia Irredenta.
Sitting among the Big Four, this country played a relatively small role in World War I. However, it was granted a seat in the Council of the League of Nations. Emerging as a great power from the war, it would become a major threat to its enemy's in World War II.
The stance taken by Woodrow Wilson in dealing with the defeated nations.Victorious nations became critical of this strategy as they wanted to financially cripple the defeated nations.
An agreement by which the British promised the Jews a national home in Palestine.
A policy for establishing and developing a national homeland for Jews in Palestine.
"Unredeemed Italy." A nationalist belief following unification which encouraged "Italianization." A reason for Italy's opposition of Austria-Hungary in WWI. The Allies promised the South Tyrol, Trieste, and some of the Dalmatian Islands plus new colonies in Africa and a shre of the Turkish Empire satisfied this.
A communist uprising in Berlin.
During the war, the British had encouraged hopes of the establishment of this, which would be carved out of the Ottoman Empire
League of Nations
The fourteenth point of Wilson's Fourteen Points. It was an international organization designed to peacefully mediate disputes. Although the United States proposed it, the US never joined.
The international court of the League of Nations. Would tackle arbitration cases.
Covenant of the League
This bound the members of the League of Nations to "respect and preserve" the territorial integrity of all of its members.
This territory was given to Germany for its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. After WWI, it was returned to France.
These were to be placed under the "tutelage" of one of the great powers of the League of Nations under supervision of the league. These territories were encouraged to advance toward independence.
France received the right to work in the coal mines of this for fifteen years from Germany as compensation.
The process of limiting German military forces. The German army was limited to 100,000 men on long-term service, its fleet was reduced to a coastal defense force, and war planes, submarines, tanks, heavy artillery, and poison gas were forbidden.
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and a number of other states are referred to this. These countries were carved out of the Central Powers and Russia.
Inserted into the Treaty of Versailles, this identified Germany as the chief instigator of the war. This justified huge reparation payments.
Prime Minister Philipp Scheidmann
This German spoke of the Treaty of Versailles as the imprisonment of the German people. He asked, "What hand would not wither that binds itself and us in these fetters." In spite of his arguments, Germany had no choice but to sign the treaty.
John Maynard Keynes
The author of "The Economic Consequences of the Peace," this brilliant economist attacked reparations agreements and other economic aspects of the Treaty of Versailles.
Also called the Triple Entente, the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia made up one camp of World War I. The United States later joined.
Originally the Triple Alliance. Germany and Austria-Hungary made up one camp of World War I. After Italy refused to honor the Triple Alliance, German and Austria-Hungary recruited the Ottoman Empire.
Helmuth von Moltke
The nephew of Bismarck's most effective general. This man put the Schlieffen Plan into action.
Battle of the Marne
After a French invasion of Germany failed, France and Britain teamed up to stop the German counter-attack and ultimate advance on Paris at this battle.
Characterized by barbed wire that stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland, this type of combat can be attributed to the long stalemate. Machine guns were strategically placed, making any advance difficult and dangerous. This kind of warfare took the life Christy Mathewson, the chivalrous, educated, and soft-spoken idol of BLBrown46.
The introduction of poison gas, tanks, machine guns, and improved military tactics made World War I arguably the first ______ ______.
The junior German officer who destroyed or captured an entire Russian army at the Battle of Tannenberg and defeated another one at the Masurian Lakes.
General Paul von Hindenburg
The elderly general who supervised Erhich Ludendorff. Scored numerous victories over the Russians.
Thanks to a secret treaty which agreed to give Italy new lands after the war and Romania's willingness to fight, the Allies reformed to become this.
General Erich von Falkenhayn
Moltke's successor, he sought success by an attack on the French stronghold of Verdun.
Battle of Verdun
Capitalizing on Erich von Falkenhayn's miscalculation of French military strength, the French overcame superior firepower and repelled the German forces at this battle.
"They shall not pass," this French military commander of Verdun declared. He led the French to victory at Verdun, becoming a national hero.
Battle of the Somme
In an attempt to end the war quickly, the Allies launched this large military offensive. The Allies underestimated the German defenses and ultimately lost.
The backbone of the German navy. These caused more than a few headaches for Alllies and even brought the United States into the war.
This British liner was sunk by a German submarine. This infuriated President Woodrow Wilson because a number of the casualties were American. Wilson warned Germany that another attack would result in serious consequences. This happened one day after Babe Ruth smashed his first career home run.
Battle of Jutland
A naval battle between Germany and Britain. The British victory confirmed British naval superiority.
Arthur Zimmermann, German foreign minister, sent a telegram to the minister in Mexico and said Mexico would be rewarded if it fought against the United States. Infuriated, the United States declared war against the Central Powers, joining the Allies.
The government established in Russia following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II.
The radical wing of the Social Democratic Party, it was largely responsible for the Russian Revolution.
The orthodox Marxist wing of the Social Democratic Party. They hoped to work temporarily with the Constitution Democrats in a liberal regime.
This group failed to control the army or to purge "reactionaries" from the government.
This moderate socialist headed the Provisional Government following Nicholas II's abdication. Ultimately overthrown by the Bolsheviks.
The leader of the Bolsheviks. Germany brought him to Russia in order to cause chaos in the Russian state. His speeches inspired the overthrow of the Provisional Government.
The chief collaborator of Lenin. After being released from prison, he led the powerful Petrograd soviet. He organized the coup against the Provisional Government.
The communist camp of the Russian Civil War.
Supported by the Allies, this army lost to the Reds for control of the government in the Russian Civil War.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
An armistice signed between the Bolshevik government and Germany. Russia formally withdrew from World War I and yielded Poland, the Baltic states, and the Ukraine. Heavy war indemnities were paid.
Second Battle of the Marne
Bolstered by the arrival of American troops, the Allies stamped out this final German offensive.
Prince Max of Baden
This new leader of the German government asked for peace on the basis of the Fourteen Points.
Proposed by President Woodrow Wilson, these terms of peace included self-determination, open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, disarmament, and the establishment of the League of Nations.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP European History Chapter 23
AP European History Chapter 21
AP European History Chapter 24
AP European History Chapter 27
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