How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

98 terms

Speech 1315 Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
channel
the way a message is sent
communication
the process of sharing meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues
critical thinking
the logical, reflective examination of information and ideas to determine what to believe or do
decoding
the process of attaching meanings to symbols received
encoding
the process of selecting symbols to carry a message
environment
the physical setting and occasion for communication
feedback
verbal and nonverbal responses between communicators about the clarity or acceptability of messages
group communication
three or more people interacting one another to pursue a common goal
interpersonal communication/dyadic communication
communication between individuals in pairs
interpreter
any person using symbols to send or receive messages
intrapersonal communication
communicating with oneself
listener
the intermittent, learned and active process of giving attention to sound
mass communication
one person or group communicating to a large audience through some print or electronic medium
message
ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally
noise
anything that distracts from effective communication
physical noise
distractions origination in the communication environment
physiological noise
distractions originating in the bodies of communicators
psychological noise
distractions originating in the thoughts of communicators
public communication
one person communicating fafe to face with an audience
referent
the object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbol
speaker
the sender, encoder, or source of the message
symbol
anything to which people attach meaning
ethics
morals, values, knowing right from wrong in thought and action
fair use provision
section of US copyright law allowing limited noncommercial use of copyrighted materials for teaching, criticism, scholarship, research, or commentary
intentional plagiarism
the deliberate use of another's ideas
paraplage
plagiarism consisting of half original writing and half quotation from unattributed source
plagiarism
the attributed use of another's ideas
unintentional plagiarism
the careless or unconscious unattributed use of another's ideas
cognitive restructuring
a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with positive ones
communication apprehension
a speaker's lever of fear or anxiety resulting from anticipated or real communication with others
visualization
a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by picturing yourself delivering a successful speech
criticism
feedback offered for the purpose of improving a speaker's speech
factual distractions
listening disturbances caused by attempts to recall minute details of what is being communicated
hearing
the continuous, natural, and passive process of receiving aural stimuli
listening
the intermittent, learned, and active process of giving attention to aural stimuli
norms
the values critics believe are necessary to make any speech good, effective, or desirable
physical distractions
listening disturbances that originate in the physical environment and are perceived by the listeners senses
physiological distractions
listening disturbances that originate in a listeners illness, fatigue, or unusual bodily stress
psychological distractions
listening disturbances that originate in the listeners attitudes, preoccupations, or worries
reasons
statements that justify a critics judgment
semantic distractions
listening disturbances caused by confusion over the meaning of words
attitude
a statement expressing an individual's approval or disapproval
audience disposition
listener's feelings of like or dislike or neutrality toward a speaker, the speaker's topic, or the occasion for a speech
audience profile
a descriptive sketch of listener's characteristics, values, beliefs, attitudes, and actions
audience segmentation
the strategy of dividing an audience into various subgroups based on their demographic and physiological profiles
audience targeting
the strategy of directing a speech primarily toward one or more portions of the entire audience
behavior
an individuals observable action
belief
a statement that people accept as true
captive audience
a group of people who are compelled to assemble to listen to a speaker
demographics
characteristics of the audience such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, etc.
Maslow's hierarchy
five basic human needs: physiological (food) , safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization
psychographics
characteristics of the audience, such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors
value
judgment of what is right wrong, usually expressed as words or phrases
voluntary audience
a group of people who have assembled of their own free will to listen
audience-generated topics
speech subjects geared to the interests and needs of a speaker's listeners
brainstorming
noncritical free association to generate as many ideas as possible
general purpose
the broad goal of a speech, such as to inform, persuade, or entertain
occasion-generated topics
speech subjects derived from particular circumstances, seasons, holidays, or life events
research-generated topics
speech subjects discovered by investigating a variety of sources
self-generated topics
speech subjects based on the speaker's interests, expertise, and knowledge
specific purpose
a statement of the general purpose of the speech, the speakers intended audience, and the limited goal or outcome
speech to inform
a speech designed to convert new or useful information
speech to actuate
speech to influence audience behaviors
speech to convince
speech to influence audience beliefs and attitudes
speech to entertain
speech to make a point through creative humor
speech to persuade
speech to influence beliefs and actions
thesis statement
a one sentence synopsis of a speaker's message
visual brainstorming
informal written outline achieved by free associating around a key word or idea
circular conclusion
conclusion that repeats or refers to a material used in the AGD
direct question
a question that asks for an overt response from listeners
preview
a statement that orients the audience by revealing how the speaker had organized the body of the speech
rhetorical question
a question not meant to be answered out loud
summary
a statement reviewing the major ideas of the speech
complete sentence outline
an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce complete sentences
coordinate ideas
ideas that have equal value in a speech
formal outline
a complete sentence outline written in sufficient detail that a person other than the speaker could understand it
key word or phrase outline
an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce words or groups of words
speaking outline
a brief outline for the speaker's use alone and containing source citations and delivery prompts
subordinate ideas
ideas that support more general or more important points in a speech
working outline
an informal, initial outline recording a speaker's process of narrowing, focusing, and balancing a topic
appearance
a speaker's physical features including dress and grooming
articulation
the mechanical process of forming the sounds necessary to communicate in a particular language
delivery
the way a speaker presents a speech through voice qualities, bodily actions, and language
eye contact
when a speaker looks a listener in the eye
facial expression
the tension and movement of various parts of a speakers face
gestures
movements of a speakers hands, arms, and head while delivering a speech
impromptu speaking
speaking without advance preparation
inflection
patterns changing in a person's pitch level while speaking
movement
a speaker's motion from place to place during speech and delivery
pause
an intentional or unintentional period of silence during delivery
pitch
the highness or lowness of a speaker's voice
posture
the position of a speaker's body while giving speech
pronunciation
how the sounds of a word are to be said and which parts are to be stressed
rate
the speed at which a speech is delivered
speaking extemporaneously
delivering a speech from notes or from a memorized outline
speaking from manuscript
delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advance
speaking from memory
delivering a speech that is recalled word for word from a written text
volume
the relative loudness or softness of a speaker's voice