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the way a message is sent


the process of sharing meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues

critical thinking

the logical, reflective examination of information and ideas to determine what to believe or do


the process of attaching meanings to symbols received


the process of selecting symbols to carry a message


the physical setting and occasion for communication


verbal and nonverbal responses between communicators about the clarity or acceptability of messages

group communication

three or more people interacting one another to pursue a common goal

interpersonal communication/dyadic communication

communication between individuals in pairs


any person using symbols to send or receive messages

intrapersonal communication

communicating with oneself


the intermittent, learned and active process of giving attention to sound

mass communication

one person or group communicating to a large audience through some print or electronic medium


ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally


anything that distracts from effective communication

physical noise

distractions origination in the communication environment

physiological noise

distractions originating in the bodies of communicators

psychological noise

distractions originating in the thoughts of communicators

public communication

one person communicating fafe to face with an audience


the object or idea each interpreter attaches to a symbol


the sender, encoder, or source of the message


anything to which people attach meaning


morals, values, knowing right from wrong in thought and action

fair use provision

section of US copyright law allowing limited noncommercial use of copyrighted materials for teaching, criticism, scholarship, research, or commentary

intentional plagiarism

the deliberate use of another's ideas


plagiarism consisting of half original writing and half quotation from unattributed source


the attributed use of another's ideas

unintentional plagiarism

the careless or unconscious unattributed use of another's ideas

cognitive restructuring

a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with positive ones

communication apprehension

a speaker's lever of fear or anxiety resulting from anticipated or real communication with others


a strategy for reducing communication anxiety by picturing yourself delivering a successful speech


feedback offered for the purpose of improving a speaker's speech

factual distractions

listening disturbances caused by attempts to recall minute details of what is being communicated


the continuous, natural, and passive process of receiving aural stimuli


the intermittent, learned, and active process of giving attention to aural stimuli


the values critics believe are necessary to make any speech good, effective, or desirable

physical distractions

listening disturbances that originate in the physical environment and are perceived by the listeners senses

physiological distractions

listening disturbances that originate in a listeners illness, fatigue, or unusual bodily stress

psychological distractions

listening disturbances that originate in the listeners attitudes, preoccupations, or worries


statements that justify a critics judgment

semantic distractions

listening disturbances caused by confusion over the meaning of words


a statement expressing an individual's approval or disapproval

audience disposition

listener's feelings of like or dislike or neutrality toward a speaker, the speaker's topic, or the occasion for a speech

audience profile

a descriptive sketch of listener's characteristics, values, beliefs, attitudes, and actions

audience segmentation

the strategy of dividing an audience into various subgroups based on their demographic and physiological profiles

audience targeting

the strategy of directing a speech primarily toward one or more portions of the entire audience


an individuals observable action


a statement that people accept as true

captive audience

a group of people who are compelled to assemble to listen to a speaker


characteristics of the audience such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, etc.

Maslow's hierarchy

five basic human needs: physiological (food) , safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization


characteristics of the audience, such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors


judgment of what is right wrong, usually expressed as words or phrases

voluntary audience

a group of people who have assembled of their own free will to listen

audience-generated topics

speech subjects geared to the interests and needs of a speaker's listeners


noncritical free association to generate as many ideas as possible

general purpose

the broad goal of a speech, such as to inform, persuade, or entertain

occasion-generated topics

speech subjects derived from particular circumstances, seasons, holidays, or life events

research-generated topics

speech subjects discovered by investigating a variety of sources

self-generated topics

speech subjects based on the speaker's interests, expertise, and knowledge

specific purpose

a statement of the general purpose of the speech, the speakers intended audience, and the limited goal or outcome

speech to inform

a speech designed to convert new or useful information

speech to actuate

speech to influence audience behaviors

speech to convince

speech to influence audience beliefs and attitudes

speech to entertain

speech to make a point through creative humor

speech to persuade

speech to influence beliefs and actions

thesis statement

a one sentence synopsis of a speaker's message

visual brainstorming

informal written outline achieved by free associating around a key word or idea

circular conclusion

conclusion that repeats or refers to a material used in the AGD

direct question

a question that asks for an overt response from listeners


a statement that orients the audience by revealing how the speaker had organized the body of the speech

rhetorical question

a question not meant to be answered out loud


a statement reviewing the major ideas of the speech

complete sentence outline

an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce complete sentences

coordinate ideas

ideas that have equal value in a speech

formal outline

a complete sentence outline written in sufficient detail that a person other than the speaker could understand it

key word or phrase outline

an outline in which all numbers and letters introduce words or groups of words

speaking outline

a brief outline for the speaker's use alone and containing source citations and delivery prompts

subordinate ideas

ideas that support more general or more important points in a speech

working outline

an informal, initial outline recording a speaker's process of narrowing, focusing, and balancing a topic


a speaker's physical features including dress and grooming


the mechanical process of forming the sounds necessary to communicate in a particular language


the way a speaker presents a speech through voice qualities, bodily actions, and language

eye contact

when a speaker looks a listener in the eye

facial expression

the tension and movement of various parts of a speakers face


movements of a speakers hands, arms, and head while delivering a speech

impromptu speaking

speaking without advance preparation


patterns changing in a person's pitch level while speaking


a speaker's motion from place to place during speech and delivery


an intentional or unintentional period of silence during delivery


the highness or lowness of a speaker's voice


the position of a speaker's body while giving speech


how the sounds of a word are to be said and which parts are to be stressed


the speed at which a speech is delivered

speaking extemporaneously

delivering a speech from notes or from a memorized outline

speaking from manuscript

delivering a speech from a text written word for word and practiced in advance

speaking from memory

delivering a speech that is recalled word for word from a written text


the relative loudness or softness of a speaker's voice

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