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list the five causes of world war 1

militarism, alliances, nationalism, imperialism, assassination

policy of building up military to prepare for war


agreements between nations to aide and protect each other


pride or devotion to one's country


the assasination of who was a cause of the war?

austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand

triple entente

great britain, france, russia

triple alliance

germany, austria hungary, italy

when the war starts the triple entente becomes the _____

allied powers

when the war starts the triple alliance becomes the ____

central powers

when the war starts, what country joins the allied powers?


when the war starts, who joins the central powers?

ottoman empire

ruler of russia when war starts

Czar Nicholas II

ruler of great britain when war starts

George V

ruler of germany when the war starts

kaiser wilhelm II

who were all first cousins?

Czar Nicholas II, Kaiser Wilhelm II, George V

romance languages

french, italian, spanish, portugeses, walloun, romanian

movement to unify the people of all german speaking countries


pan-germanism and pan-slavism are part of what?


led by russia to unify and protect the slavic countries


aka "powder keg of europe"

the balkans

what country were the balkans protected by?


why was the ottoman empire the sick man of europe?

because they were slowly loosing all of their territory

imperialism: nations competed for _____


serbian nationalist who thought bosnia should belong to serbia

gavrilo princip

who and where did gavrilo princip kill?

Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at saravejo, bosnia

when germany declares war on russia who pledges their support for russia?


after france pledges their support for russia, who declares war on them?


germany invades ___ on the way to France


____ supports Belgium and declares war on _____

Great Britain, Germany

why does Japan join the allies?

they want control of the lands around the pacific oceans for natural resources

why did a lot of countries mobilize?

there hadn't been a major war in fifty years so they didn't remember how bad it was, they thought they would be home by christmas, nationalism

women who made ammunition for guns

munition workers

aka a war of attrition

the western front

on the western front, what starts the battles?

schlieffen plan

explain the schlieffen plan

germany knows they cannot fight russia and france on two different fronts so they decide to take over France by invading belgium (neutral state)

what halts german invasion in france?

battle of the marne; first trenches of the western front are dug

how does the battle of the marne end?


on the western front, neither side gains more than ___ miles in over ___ years

10; 2

describe the battle of Verdun

it was a german offensive, each side had 500, 000 casualities

describe the battle of the Somme

it was a allied offensive, no breakthrough; over 1 million killed in 5 months

which battle was the worst for britain? why?

battle of the Somme because 60,000 british soldiers killed a day

three main battles on the western front

battle of the marne, verdun, somme

what were some problems with the trenches?

diseases spread easily, filled with water, trench foot

what were some new uses of warfare on the western front?

air raids and submarines, zeppelin, unrestricted submarines, blockades

on the eastern front, what did french and british leaders ask Russia to do?

divert the german forces on the western front by attacking them on the east

what was the battle called when Russia listened to france and britain and attacked the eastern front?

Battle of Tannenberg

when russia looses the battle of tannenberg, how much of force is lost?


describe the gallipoli disaster

on the eastern front, the ottoman empire cuts off russia and fights them. the allied powers can no longer get in or out of russia

what does the war show russia?

that czar nicholas II's rule was very inefficient

what communist took over russia?

vladimir lenin

what does lenin do once he takes over?

pulls russia out of the war

what does lenin sign saying russia is dropping out of the war?

treaty of brest litovsk

what does russia dropping out of the war do to the central powers?

it lets them move all of their troops to their western front

the colonies participated in the war, what did that lead to?

demands for independence and intense feelings of nationalism

what are two reasons why america joins the allies?

sinking of the lusitania and the zimmerman telegram

describe the sinking of the lusitania

an american passenger boat was hit by a german submarine in the atlantic ocean

germany wrote a letter to mexico saying that if they join the war, they will make sure they get back what three places?

texas, new mexico, and arizona

depletes all armies, 50 million-100 million deaths

flu pandemic

describe the second battle of the marne

allied tank offensive, broke through the german lines

outcome of 2nd battle of the marne

bulgaria and ottomans surrender, austria and hungary separate and pull out of the war

germany abdicates and what government comes after Wilhelm?


11th month, 11th day, 11th hour

armistice day

what is armistice day?

when germans surrender

how many people died from the war?

9 million-11 million

116516 americans are buried here

the Somme American Cemetery in France

why did more french die then british?

because most of the fighting was in france

aka peace without victory

fourteen points

who comes up with the fourteen points?

woodrow wilson

most important point in woodrow wilson's fourteen points

league of nations

who were the big four?

woodrow wilson, david llyod george (gb), georges clemceau (france), vittorio orlando (italy)

what did the treaty of versailles force germany to do?

pay for war preparations and loose alsace lorraine and all of the overseas colonies, limits german militaries

why was the formation of the league of nations ultimatley unsuccesful?

because united states and great britain refused to sign the treaty

where were mandates established?

middle east (france and britain)

what ends the era?

fall of the hapsburgs (austria and hre), hohenzollerns (prussia that became germany), and romanovs (russia) and ottoman empire

triple entente have more colonies, power

imperial rivalries

example of pan-slavism

russia pledged support for serbia

example of pan-germanism

germany pledged support for austria hungary

group in bosnia or serbia that did not like austrian dominance

black hand

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