World War I
list the five causes of world war 1
militarism, alliances, nationalism, imperialism, assassination
policy of building up military to prepare for war
agreements between nations to aide and protect each other
pride or devotion to one's country
the assasination of who was a cause of the war?
austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand
great britain, france, russia
germany, austria hungary, italy
when the war starts the triple entente becomes the _____
when the war starts the triple alliance becomes the ____
when the war starts, what country joins the allied powers?
when the war starts, who joins the central powers?
ruler of russia when war starts
Czar Nicholas II
ruler of great britain when war starts
ruler of germany when the war starts
kaiser wilhelm II
who were all first cousins?
Czar Nicholas II, Kaiser Wilhelm II, George V
french, italian, spanish, portugeses, walloun, romanian
movement to unify the people of all german speaking countries
pan-germanism and pan-slavism are part of what?
led by russia to unify and protect the slavic countries
aka "powder keg of europe"
what country were the balkans protected by?
why was the ottoman empire the sick man of europe?
because they were slowly loosing all of their territory
imperialism: nations competed for _____
serbian nationalist who thought bosnia should belong to serbia
who and where did gavrilo princip kill?
Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie at saravejo, bosnia
when germany declares war on russia who pledges their support for russia?
after france pledges their support for russia, who declares war on them?
germany invades ___ on the way to France
____ supports Belgium and declares war on _____
Great Britain, Germany
why does Japan join the allies?
they want control of the lands around the pacific oceans for natural resources
why did a lot of countries mobilize?
there hadn't been a major war in fifty years so they didn't remember how bad it was, they thought they would be home by christmas, nationalism
women who made ammunition for guns
aka a war of attrition
the western front
on the western front, what starts the battles?
explain the schlieffen plan
germany knows they cannot fight russia and france on two different fronts so they decide to take over France by invading belgium (neutral state)
what halts german invasion in france?
battle of the marne; first trenches of the western front are dug
how does the battle of the marne end?
on the western front, neither side gains more than ___ miles in over ___ years
describe the battle of Verdun
it was a german offensive, each side had 500, 000 casualities
describe the battle of the Somme
it was a allied offensive, no breakthrough; over 1 million killed in 5 months
which battle was the worst for britain? why?
battle of the Somme because 60,000 british soldiers killed a day
three main battles on the western front
battle of the marne, verdun, somme
what were some problems with the trenches?
diseases spread easily, filled with water, trench foot
what were some new uses of warfare on the western front?
air raids and submarines, zeppelin, unrestricted submarines, blockades
on the eastern front, what did french and british leaders ask Russia to do?
divert the german forces on the western front by attacking them on the east
what was the battle called when Russia listened to france and britain and attacked the eastern front?
Battle of Tannenberg
when russia looses the battle of tannenberg, how much of force is lost?
describe the gallipoli disaster
on the eastern front, the ottoman empire cuts off russia and fights them. the allied powers can no longer get in or out of russia
what does the war show russia?
that czar nicholas II's rule was very inefficient
what communist took over russia?
what does lenin do once he takes over?
pulls russia out of the war
what does lenin sign saying russia is dropping out of the war?
treaty of brest litovsk
what does russia dropping out of the war do to the central powers?
it lets them move all of their troops to their western front
the colonies participated in the war, what did that lead to?
demands for independence and intense feelings of nationalism
what are two reasons why america joins the allies?
sinking of the lusitania and the zimmerman telegram
describe the sinking of the lusitania
an american passenger boat was hit by a german submarine in the atlantic ocean
germany wrote a letter to mexico saying that if they join the war, they will make sure they get back what three places?
texas, new mexico, and arizona
depletes all armies, 50 million-100 million deaths
describe the second battle of the marne
allied tank offensive, broke through the german lines
outcome of 2nd battle of the marne
bulgaria and ottomans surrender, austria and hungary separate and pull out of the war
germany abdicates and what government comes after Wilhelm?
11th month, 11th day, 11th hour
what is armistice day?
when germans surrender
how many people died from the war?
9 million-11 million
116516 americans are buried here
the Somme American Cemetery in France
why did more french die then british?
because most of the fighting was in france
aka peace without victory
who comes up with the fourteen points?
most important point in woodrow wilson's fourteen points
league of nations
who were the big four?
woodrow wilson, david llyod george (gb), georges clemceau (france), vittorio orlando (italy)
what did the treaty of versailles force germany to do?
pay for war preparations and loose alsace lorraine and all of the overseas colonies, limits german militaries
why was the formation of the league of nations ultimatley unsuccesful?
because united states and great britain refused to sign the treaty
where were mandates established?
middle east (france and britain)
what ends the era?
fall of the hapsburgs (austria and hre), hohenzollerns (prussia that became germany), and romanovs (russia) and ottoman empire
triple entente have more colonies, power
example of pan-slavism
russia pledged support for serbia
example of pan-germanism
germany pledged support for austria hungary
group in bosnia or serbia that did not like austrian dominance