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Arts and Humanities
Intro to public speaking, Prof. Bettenbender
Terms in this set (63)
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience.
is a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to a physical or mental stress.
is normal. comes from expectations or fear that you won't meet expectations
is controlled nervousness that helps bring energy for our presentation.
How Do You Overcome Stage Fright?
Prepare, prepare, prepare.
is mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
1. logical relationships among ideas
2. the soundness of evidence
3. the difference between fact and opinion
Most nervousness is not visible.
Nervousness comes from expectations or the fear that you won't meet expectations.
Don't expect perfection. There is no such thing as a perfect speech.
Opinion is an unsubstantiated assertion
What Is Communication?
Definition. For this class, it is the process of exchanging information & meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs and behavior.
is past experience gained through our use of our five senses from a process called perception.
how we interpret an experience.
Sensation: reception of stimulus from one or more of the 5 senses.
the intellectual translation of stimulus into meaning
sender - the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.
Frame of Reference:
It is the sum of a person's:
No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.
whatever a speaker communicates to someone else.
(medium of communication): is the way the message is sent.
It involves verbal, vocal, and visual cues. It is the means by which the message is communicated.
the person who receives the speaker's message.
the receiver's verbal and nonverbal response to the sender's message. It is the message or messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker.
anything that impedes the communication of a message. Interference can be external or internal to listeners.
the time and place in which speech communication occurs.
: is putting your message into an understandable code by use of similar symbols (verbal and nonverbal) for transmission.
is translating a transmission into meaning.
The Communication Process:
Communication is not an automatic process.
a. The sender encodes the message.
b. The sender selects an appropriate channel and transmits the message.
c. The receiver receives and decodes the message.
d. The receiver encodes and transmits a response message (feedback) to clarify any misunderstandings.
e. Interference hinders the process.
Communication Is a Transactional Process.
A transactional process is a communicative action or activity involving two or more persons that reciprocally affect or influence each other. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary - 1995)
Both communicators are constantly shifting rolls in the process from sender to receiver and back again.
Barriers to Communication
Ethnocentrism. It is the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
The use of language to defame, or degrade the individuals or groups.
Prejudging a Speaker
is concluding what a speaker is like before you have heard him or her fully.
Definition of an Informative Speech is
A speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding.
4 types of informative speeches
4 types of informative -
An object is anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form.
A process is a systematic series of actions that lead to a specific result or product.
An event is anything that happens or is regarded as happening.
A concept is a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle or anything similar.
Subject Categories for Informative Speeches
Guidelines for Speaking to Inform:
Don't overestimate what your audience knows.
Relate the subject directly to your audience.
Don't be too technical.
Personalize your ideas. Present one's ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience.
Ways to Avoid Abstractions:
Description: A statement that depicts a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness.
Comparison: A statement of similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.
Contrast: A statement of difference among two or more people, events, ideas, etc...
Remember when avoiding abstract:
Stress your informative purpose.
Be specific. Limit your topic.
Be clear. Be easily understood.
Be relevant. Stick to the point.
Don't give too much information, or
too many ideas, or
words that are too complex for the audience to handle.
Selecting a Topic
What interests you?
Select a topic that interests you.
When do you work your hardest?
If you have an interest in the subject, you will be motivated to work harder.
Buy into the project.
What interests the audience? What is in it for them. We will cover this next chapter.
is a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas
Name your intended audience and state the goal of your speech in a single infinitive phrase. (to inform my audience...)
Questions to Ask about Your Specific Purpose
Does my purpose meet the assignment?
Can I accomplish my purpose in the time allotted?
Is the purpose relevant to my audience?
Is the purpose too trivial for my audience?
Is the purpose too technical for my audience?
phrasing the central idea
It is a one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of the speech.
Your central idea is your residual message, what you want the audience to remember.
Guidelines for the Central Idea:
It should be expressed in a full sentence.
It should not be in the form of a question.
It should avoid figurative language.
It should not be too vague, or overly general.
Statement and Limitation of Topic
State the specific topic that you are going to cover.
Give us the limits, the specific points of the topic that you are going to cover.
In other words, focus the audience.
Give the audience any history, definition or context they will need to understand the presentation. Give your qualifications(credibility) - Experience, sources of your research
This is a signal that the introduction is over and you are now going to cover the main topic.
Some devices are for final thought:
a compelling statistic
A subject is neither inherently interesting or boring.
is keeping the audience in mind in every step of the speech preparation and presentation.
Getting Information about the Audience
Interviewing - Face to face interviews with each class member
Three major types of questions:
Fixed alternative is a choice between two or more alternatives. Answers are clear and unambiguous, but sometimes superficial.
Scale questions are
fixed alternative questions that allow more leeway in responding. - scales (1 to 5), (no interest to extremely interested) Useful in getting at the strength of a respondent's attitudes.
Open-ended questions are used to get a more detailed response.
(What do you think about the economy?)
Adapting to the Audience
Audience analysis (adaptation) before the speech
Identify and emphasize audience needs that are relevant to your topic.
Two types of audience: voluntary and captive.
How is the audience likely to respond?
Develop a research plan.
What information do you need?
Where are you most likely to find it?
How can you obtain this information?
How will time constraints affect your research options?
Collect Your Information
Something that you can talk about with the authority of your past experience.
Everyone is an expert on something.
Written, Audio, and Visual Resources
On line search engines
Video - tape or DVD
Other computer sources
Hint: check table of contents and index
Other people's experiences through direct interview.
Telephone and internet interviews are included.
Finding the people.
Where would they work? Would they be accessible from the internet?
Who would be an expert?
5 Steps to Take Before an Interview:
Define the purpose of the interview.
Decide whom to interview.
Arrange the interview.
Decide whether or not to use a tape-recorder
Prepare your questions.
Pros and Cons of Using a Tape-Recorder
The materials used to backup a speaker's ideas.
The three major kinds are:
is the average value of a group of numbers. 60,000
is the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest. 40,000
is the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers. 25,000
Quotations or paraphrases used to support a point.
Testimony from people who are recognized as Authorities in their field.
Testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight in a topic
Testimony that is presented word for word.
A restatement or summarization of a source's ideas in one's (your) own words.
Quoting out of context is
quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it.
Use testimony from qualified sources.
Use testimony from unbiased sources
Identify people you quote or paraphrase
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